Australia And New Zealand Papers

  • Origin And Development Of The White Australia Policy And Its Impact

    1462 words, 6 pages

    The origin and development of the "White Australia Policy" and its impacts on Australian population and society From the turn of the century there were various laws in Australia that aimed to keep people who were not from a white European background out of the country. The ‘White Australian Policy’ describes Australia’s approach to immigration, since the federation until the latter part of the 20th century, this policy favoured applicants from only certain countries (fact sheet 8, 2007). The origins and development of the ‘White Australia Policy’ can be traced bac

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    Party Pills In New Zealand (Bzp)

    2423 words, 10 pages

    Youth are the building block of a community life, where the community that has less youth is menaced with extinction. Party Pills are on of the new junk substance that introduced to our society as an energy drink and pills on the last sixty years. Party pills, also known as ‘herbal highs’, ‘pep pills’ and dance pills are recreational drugs taken to increase a persons alertness as well as elevate their mood and energy. Since the year 2000, approximately 8 million party pills have been sold in New Zealand (Party pills Q&A, Thursday June 28, 2007). The pills are made with

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    Cultural Diversity

    3064 words, 13 pages

    What is Australian culture? Ask the average person in the Street and they would respond with phrases such as “the lucky country, mateship, dinki-di, hard-working, sense of humour and very sporty.” One cannot say they are wrong. Who could ever forget the classic jingle “football, meat pies, kangaroos and Holden cars, played adnauseum on the local radio station? Paul Hogan or Hoges as we like to call him threw a lot of shrimps on the barby, and those beer commercials are constantly churned out, even to this day. To many Australians this is certainly what they perce

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    Pacific Encounters

    2055 words, 9 pages

    When the Europeans began their study of the Pacific they intended to be very specific about what sort of information they gathered. The intentions of the three voyages of James Cook were to gather information in regards to the transit of Venue, to test cures for scurvy, prove or disprove the existence of the Southern Continent and to find a north-west passage between Asia and America. It was all about the Enlightenment quest for exploration and knowledge coupled to be detailed in a logical and scientific manner. On Cooks second voyage however, George Forster, the

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    New Zealand Politics

    1028 words, 5 pages

    New Zealand is a unique land of breathtaking scenery and geological diversity. Considered the youngest country in the world, new Zealand is ran by a parliamentary democracy. Although New Zealand is a very young country it does have an interesting history. New Zealand, which is located southeast of Australia, is about the size of Colorado (CIA Factbook). New Zealand has a very diverse landscape ranging from snow capped mountains, to rain forests (New Zealand). There are many different landscapes, environments, and ecosystems so close to each othe

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    Tecnhnological Advancements Influencing Food Habits In Australia

    1681 words, 7 pages

    Analyse how technological developments throughout history have influenced the cuisine/eating habits in Australia today. Use specific examples to support your response. Throughout history we can see major advances in technology which have changed, developed and influenced the eating habits and cuisines found in Australia today. Australia is a multicultural society, with its population made up of a wide variety of cultures and groups from all over the world. With these many different cultures, come different food cultures which have influenced the eating habits of A

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    Migrant Nation

    3611 words, 15 pages

    'AUSTRALIA HAS A VERY PROUD RECORD OF ASSISTING PEOPLE IN GREAT HUMANITARIAN NEED'. Australia’s record as one proudly assisting those in need, is a false claim for a nation which spent decades pursuing national political and security interests ahead of assisting those in great humanitarian need. However, recent changes in policy frameworks under the Rudd government has given refugees hope for the future, with the dismantling of the Pacific Solution which crippled Australia’s position as an advocator for human rights. Australia does not have a well-established tradition of offering a place

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    Australia S Attempt To Compete In The International Film Marketplace

    2989 words, 12 pages

    Hollywood represents epic dominance in the worldwide film industry leaving other countries struggling for prominence. Instead of existing as direct competition by attempting to imitate’ Hollywood’ in poorer quality Australia has directed its efforts in producing films that are some-what different and unique to communicate Australian aesthetics. The following essay will identify Australia as a non-Hollywood cinema and discuss its attempts to compete in the international marketplace. The essay will explain ‘attempts’ by identifying specific examples of Australian cinema and will exami

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    What Is Planning And Why Do We Plan

    1880 words, 8 pages

    PLN 1600 – WHAT IS PLANNING AND WHY DO WE PLAN? Planning is a broad and inclusive topic, which is at the heart of each and every suburb, town and city in the world. This essay is aimed at answering the questions “What is planning and why do we plan?” To do this, a definition of planning will be provided, followed by an overview of Australia’s planning system. Following this will be an in-depth look at the Western Australian system and the important legislation and plans implemented. Finally I will provide reasons why we plan. One of the reasons planning is not well recognised is because it

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    Australian Identity

    1630 words, 7 pages

    Australian identity, is an idea that is too big for anyone person to fully understand. Yet it is solely constructed from every small individual’s perception. In contrasting the Citizenship booklet, the government’s guide for future Australian citizens and True Blue? the anthology that “reminds us of our varied heritage” (True Blue?, 2008), it is evident that there are many versions of Australian identity. The two texts suggest that to generalise Australian culture and identity into one category is problematic. The question posed is whether Australia is a nation of migrants or the country of An

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    Non Interest Income Of Bank

    1329 words, 6 pages

    The research paper by Kim Hawtrey, “Banks’ non-interest income: an international study” deals with the changes in the composition of domestic interest and non-interest income in the past decade in comparison to international standards. The paper can be largely divided into two sections with the first half describing how the Australian banks compare with international interest and non-interest income. The second part uses data regression across sixteen OECD countries and analyses the factors which shape non-interest income of the banks. Factors such as risk, productivity, globalization, regulat

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    Aborigines In Australia

    5719 words, 23 pages

    1. Introduction The culture of the Aborigines represents the eldest culture of the human race that still lives in Australia and performs their culture. However, it is necessary to keep in mind that there does not exist the “aboriginal culture”, because, precisely speaking, the Aborigines are not a uniformed tribe. The various Aboriginal tribes sometimes have different traditions and languages, in a sense a slightly different culture in each tribe. For instance, there are the Aborigines who lived and still live in the desert of Central Australia or those who inhabit the tropical North. All t

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    Environmental Issues Of Antarctica And The Global

    4454 words, 18 pages

    This article discusses the environmental issues of Antarctica and the global initiatives to address the problems of Antarctica caused by human and natural events. Spatial Patterns and Dimensions: Antarctica is the continent most south of the Antarctic Circle and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. It is approximately 5000 kilometres south of Australia. It has latitude of 90 degrees south and a longitude of 0 degrees east. It covers an area approximately 14million square kilometres (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice covered). If all the ice were to mel

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    Whitlam

    1660 words, 7 pages

    In Decemeber 1972, Edward Gough Whitlam led his party, the Australian Labor Party to power for the first time in 23 years with the powerful campaign "It's Time". Even though his government only survived for just less than 3 years (in office from 5th of Dec 1975 to 11th of Nov 1975), Whitlam marked a period of great revolution in the history of Australian. His reforms, policies and dedication to this nation contributed enormously to Australia's post-war development; bringing significant impacts to Australia both socially and economically. Whitlam's campaign based upon th

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    Australian English

    1044 words, 5 pages

    The way Australians speak English is different from the rest of the English speaking population. No where else in the world will you find such homogeneity in pronunciation like you will in Australia. You can travel from one side of the country to the other and you will find people sound the same. There are no distinct dialects spoken in Australia to suggest to the listener that a particular person is from say Sydney or from Melbourne . There are various reasons why we have come to this uniformity; the settlement of our country by the British and convict settlements, the

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    Define Terms Used In Community Development

    1516 words, 7 pages

    Globalisation Globalisation is the phenomenon whereby the trading of information, merchandise, services and ideas is instigated on a global scale. The roots of globalisation would appear to be mainly grounded in international trade and many see it as solely a capitalist enterprise, which serves only to further line the pockets of first world entrepreneurs. The term is increasingly used, however, to describe the growing interconnectedness of people globally in terms of the sharing and utilising of aspects of art, science, culture, psychology, technology and politica

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    Personal Aspects

    2317 words, 10 pages

    Introduction Saudi Arabia located in South West Asia Is a developing country have many sources of oil has been discovered oil since only 50 years ago that was a desert of grazing sheep and camels After the discovery of oil in the region has evolved slowly Making foreign trade and industry moving towards this region because of its abundant investment opportunities enormous Making Saudi government aware of the importance of the English language because it is the primary language of communication between foreign investors and Saudi citizen For that, the Ministry of Educat

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    Forging A Nation

    2282 words, 10 pages

    AUSTRALIA. A new nation was born in 1901 and in its teething stages was called upon to sacrifice the lives of many of its young men who fought valiantly and died in Gallipoli to defend the freedom and democracy that we enjoy today. Good morning everyone. Today I will be speaking on federation and how it created Australia’s national identity. For those of us who may not be aware, Australia has had a controversial past with its White Australia policy and its treatment of the lost generation of its indigenous peoples. How could Australia learn to treat immigrants equally w

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    Australia And The World

    1588 words, 7 pages

    Australia spends millions of dollars each year on foreign aid, in order to assist and support developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2010 to 2011, Australia will have spent a total of $458.7 million on foreign aid to Indonesia. This is significant as Indonesia is currently Australia’s largest recipient of foreign aid (AusAID). The reason for this is because Indonesia is one of the world’s most disaster-struck countries and is populated by almost 240 million people. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, tsunamis and floods have contributed to an overwhelming amou

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    Growth Decline

    1324 words, 6 pages

    Introduction Australia is an extremely urbanised country. About 85 per cent of the population lives in coastal areas, and most of these people live in urban areas with populations of over 100 000 people. Together, these areas only comprise about one per cent of Australia's total land mass. This level of urbanisation has meant that many of our cities are facing enormous pressure to keep up with the needs of their swelling populations. Generally, since the trend towards urbanisation began in the second half of the last century, our cities have been in a constant state of

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    Australia Aid

    1121 words, 5 pages

    Geography Essay Australian Aid This essay will discuss the aid link and the links between Australia and the world. This essay focuses on the link between Australia and Papua New Guinea. As Papua New Guinea has a high rate of poverty and low education, the aid link supports them by helping with funding to reduce poverty and create a better way of life. It will also mention the aid links Australia has with their agreements of multilateral aid and bilateral aid, the role of a government aid and a non-government aid and the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining t

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    Sands Of Memories

    1003 words, 5 pages

    A time with a parent that you’ll never forget Sands of Memories Final Draft I gulped down my milk, devoured my pancakes, and sprinted out of the hotel door, slamming it behind me. I was finally going to begin an adventure in my dad’s home country, New Zealand. I thought about the New Zealand National Park as I frantically pressed the elevator button several times while holding my mom’s hand. The elevator eventually opened, and I hopped inside. When the elevator opened, I sprinted through the lobby and thrust the door open. I dashed into our car quickly, ready to beg

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    Migrant Voices Related Text

    1011 words, 5 pages

    “Australia wants, and will welcome, new healthy citizens who are determined to become good Australians.”- Arthur Caldwell, Australian Minister for Immigration, 1945. During the years of 1947 to 1953 more than 170,000 emigrants were assisted by the Australian government to flee their country onto the safe shores of Australia. During these times Australia was extremely xenophobic and horrid towards those who were considered ‘different’ in society. We often hear on the news the biased opinions of many Australians towards migrants and how they are invading our country with

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    The English Language

    1011 words, 5 pages

    Language is a constant. It is a component that will be forever intertwined into the fabrication of our global society. This multi-sensory means of communication, consists of not only the verbal and writing, but also touch, smell, sound, body, and gestural elements. As human beings are social animals, people have the instinct to communicate with others, to share our feelings and thoughts, and as a result, language development in each individual becomes an instinct (Pinker, 1994). Since language is the tool used for communication, Wittgenstein says, “The limits of my lang

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    Ben Ohau Lodge Case Study

    1004 words, 5 pages

    The world's most exclusive globetrotters find isolation and adventure at New Zealand's Ben Ohau Lodge. A natural paradise allows only the wealthiest to escape their daily routines in exchange for safari shooting, golfing, helicopter rides, and many other elite activities. For a week or longer, all needs are satisfied by a breathtaking view and the serenity Ben Ohau provides. The guests of this luxurious concealed paradise make up a rather exclusive customer base for the lodge. Based solely on word of mouth and public relations for their elite clientele, a private and secure vacation spot full

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    The One

    1253 words, 6 pages

    INTRODUCTION: My name is Australia, and I’m an alcoholic! This nation is well known for the culture of drinking heavily, especially from the time of the convicts, and this has caused people to drink well over the respected limit. Alcohol has meant trouble for a long time; either from causing brain trauma or drink driving related accidents, but in the most recent times, alcohol fuelled violence has become a growing epidemic. It’s time to put a stop to this and to ask ourselves, “Is society doing enough to prevent alcohol fuelled violence?” The word society is a perplexi

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    The Flag Debate

    1218 words, 5 pages

    Should Australian Change Their Flag Now? Australia, which official name is the Commonwealth of Australia, is one of the British Commonwealth Nations. And it is a young country which is like the USA. In the 18th century, when the first British settled down here, Australia became a colony of Britain. (Wikipedia 2014) From then on, the symbol of Britain or Europe can be seen everywhere in Australia. For instance, the national flag of Australia has the Union Jack on the top of left corner, although Australia is an independent country rather than a dependency of Britain. The flag is the most impor

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    Managing And Communicating In Asia The Case Of Craig Watson

    1257 words, 6 pages

    “Understand the differences, act on the commonalities”, Andrew Masondo, African National Congress. (KwitEssential, 2012) The inevitable process of globalisation has brought to business office many team-members from all around the world with so many cultural differences and yet commonalities which are usually recognised after the differences. That is one of the causes of undesired cultural conflicts in business which could be avoided by cross cultural training. Nowadays, intercultural awareness is the key factor to succeed in doing business specially in a foreign countr

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    Australian Identity

    1245 words, 5 pages

    EDUC289 National identity is a concept that is seen on an individual and global scale that construct the attributes of the majority of the population . National identity provides a country with a sense of unity; to list common traits that individuals within the community can identify with and that other countries and the media can use to identify, stereotype, promote and unify a country. Wall (2006) encompasses this and extends the idea national identity of also creates a ‘sense of belonging’ not only unifying the nation but allowing individuals to feel they have a deep connection with t

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    Keating V Pearson Speeches

    1257 words, 6 pages

    A great speech, when delivered, will stir up different perspectives within its audiences, leaving the responder’s questioning some aspects of their own beliefs. Two examples of such speeches include Paul Keating’s ‘Funeral Service of the Unknown Australian Soldier’ and Noel Pearson’s ‘An Australian History for us all’. In 1993, the concept of the Australian identity was continually being questioned, reflected by reconciliation and the Land Title Act. Both Keating and Pearson present these ideas through their speeches, their common perspectives of the Australian identity

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    Australia

    1258 words, 6 pages

    Australia is the only country that is also a continent. In area, Australia ranks as the sixth largest country and smallest continent. Australia is located between the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. The part of the Indian Ocean that is south of Australia is called the Southern Ocean in the country. Australia is about 7,000 miles (11,000 kilometers) southwest of North America and about 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers) southeast of mainland Asia. Australia is often referred to as being down under because it lies entirely within the Southern Hemisphere. The name Au

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    Australian Care And Protection Orders

    1254 words, 6 pages

    Care and Protection Orders occur when a child is at risk of serious harm or abuse caused by their legal guardian. “In Queensland, The Child Protection Act 1999 defines a child ‘in need of protection’ as a child who has suffered harm, is suffering harm, or is at unacceptable risk of suffering harm; and does not have a parent able and willing to protect the child from the harm. ‘Parent’ is defined broadly to include persons ‘having or exercising parental responsibility for the child’ and includes a person who, under Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander tradition or custom, is regarded as a p

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    Aboriginal Cultures

    1259 words, 6 pages

    While a variety of factors have shaped the diversity of indigenous Australian philosophy and practices across the Australian continent, ones of the central characteristics of the Aboriginal worldview is the concept of the ‘Dreaming’. Outline some of the key aspects of this belief system and reflect on this in comparison to your own worldview. Indigenous people have occupied the Australian continent for thousands of years and what is believed to be since the beginning of The Dreaming. There was not and still is not just one community of Indigenous Australian people,

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    National Identity

    1250 words, 5 pages

    EDUC 289 There have been many questions asked about national identity over time such as ‘what is the Australian national identity?’ is there more than one definition and ‘who is truly Australian?’ It can be difficult to define Australia’s national identity as it is a nation built by people of many different backgrounds, beliefs, morals and traditions. A general definition is the way we perceive ourselves and the way others perceive us. Although national identity is a lot more than that as Crabb (1985) defines national identity “as the sum of all the qualities, real or imaginary, which in th

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    Kate Grenville's The Secret River

    1263 words, 6 pages

    Kate Grenville's The Secret River is a sweeping tale of the founding of Australia and the moral choices that created a nation. The Secret River tells the story of William Thornhill, a poor waterman from London who is deported, along with this family, to New South Wales in 1806. The novel opens on William's first night in the convict settlement in Sydney. As William sits outside the mud hut, an Aboriginal man materializes out of the darkness. Scared for his family, William yells at the man, “be off!” The man doesn't move. Instead, he angrily repeats William's words, “be

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    How To Implement And Maintain Effective Workplace

    1265 words, 6 pages

    Effective communication is essential skill in the workplace. People who are successful at work are often communication-oriented. They have good listening skill and aware of their own concerns and needs as well as others. However there could be hundreds of problems that happen in a workplace every day. How do people deals with these issues in workplace? We are going to look at and discuss some issues that happened in an organisation called Vee-IT NZ Ltd in the scenario. Duncan Jones is the general manager in New Zealand. He is a unitarist. He sees an organization as coh

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    Evolution Of Australian Biota Assessment Answers Megafauna The Platypus And Fossils

    1254 words, 6 pages

    a) Discuss current research into the evolutionary relationships between extinct species, including megafauna and extant Australian species. Megafauna simply means large animals, in which most have become extinct within the last 20 000 to 50 000 years. The extinction of megafauna was, debatably, due to climate change and human expansion. Although, Africa still retains some megafauna, such as the elephant or the rhinoceros. Australia has managed to keep many examples of relict species, some from the time of the megafauna. These include the Crocodile, Wollemi Pine and S

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    Pacific Realm

    1255 words, 6 pages

    World Regional Geography If you sail across the Pacific Ocean, you will see one spectacular vista after another; volcanoes, tropical rainforests, reefs and lagoons, azure waters, low atolls with nearly snow-white beaches, and strands of palm trees. [i] The Pacific Realm has the largest total area of all geographic realms. [ii] We’ll be taking a look at Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. We will be comparing and contrasting where each region is located, the human population inhabiting each region, their physical geography, economic activities of each region, and their uniqueness.

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    Platypus: Preliminary Biology –Research Task

    1258 words, 6 pages

    1) Assess the impact of three particular technological advances on the understanding of the platypus. Technology is a major tool that has been used over the last century to understand organisms better, specifically the platypus. The Platypus was first encountered by Europeans in 1798, where they thought somebody had sewn a duck’s beak onto a beaver-like animal. Since then, our understanding of the Platypus has increased and the following three technological advances have shown how and why it has increased. a) Electron Microscopy: The electron microscope is a t

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    Homelessness

    1269 words, 6 pages

    CHCCH427A-Assignment 2 1.Identify the current levels of homelessness experienced by this group. You will need to include statistical information in your answer. There are many groups of people that are vulnerable to homelessness in Australia. One group l have chosen to discuss is Indigenous Australians. The current levels of homelessness experienced by Indigenous Australians can be reflected in statistical information via many sources including organisations, books, the Internet, media reports, census surveys, the Australia Bureau of Statics (ABS) and relevant

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    Geography Of Climate Change Over Geological Time

    1506 words, 7 pages

    Geography of climate change over geological time • Two major pieces of evidence created through climate change are: rising average annual temperatures and increase in drought. These pieces of evidence are seen even in Australia. Last year Australia experienced the second driest year recorded. Climatologists believe that this rise in temperature will continue. Since 1910, the Bureau estimates that average mean minimum temperatures in Western Australia have risen almost 1 degree C (.05-.2 degrees C per decade) while average mean maximum temperatures have risen by abo

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    Wide Range Of Problems In Individuals, Groups And Communities

    1493 words, 6 pages

    BSHS/305: Historical Development of Human Services: An Introduction As human beings, we all have some sort of issue or problem but have you ever thought how some problems may affect people. Individuals, groups and communities are facing a wide range of problems and some surely go unnoticed. “Problems for clients are rarely single issues,” (Marianne Woodside, An Introduction to Human Services, 2012) and depending on how many actual problems there are some may go unnoticed. A few of the problems client may face are but definitely not limited to, developmental theory, situational perspective,

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    Australia's Regional And Global Links

    1510 words, 7 pages

    Regional and Global Links Defence: Two schools of thought: * Some believe in the "Fortress Australia" concept. That is we, should concentrate on defending our borders against invasion and attack. This would mean that the RAN and RAAF would concentrate on defending the sea/air gap to the north. It is not outward and does not worry about the rest of the world * The other view is that we should look further afield and by taking action away from Australia's borders we promote regional peace and stability and prevent threats nearer to Australian from eventuati

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    Historical Development Of Human Services: An Introduction

    1484 words, 6 pages

    As human beings, we all have some sort of issue or problem but have you ever thought how some problems may affect people. Individuals, groups and communities are facing a wide range of problems and some surely go unnoticed. “Problems for clients are rarely single issues,” (Marianne Woodside, An Introduction to Human Services, 2012) and depending on how many actual problems there are some may go unnoticed. A few of the problems client may face are but definitely not limited to, developmental theory, situational perspective, meeting human needs, both physical and psychological, social change, an

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    Australia

    1515 words, 7 pages

    Today we will take you to a frontier continent, Australia. We will meet the people of this island nation-the world largest, and we will see wondrous sights. This is a piece of coral-the accumulation of skeletons of small sea animals. After thousands of years, a huge amount can be created, called a reef. We will show you the largest reef in the world. Two thousand kilometers long---longer than the distance from Beijing to Changsha, and it’s all coral. This is the Great Barrier Reef, one of the wonders of the world. It was first charted in 1770 by Captain James Cook-the most famous Western ex

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    Sporting Clubs Engaging People Living In Rural Communities

    1504 words, 7 pages

    Participation in sporting clubs is a beneficial way to engage people living in rural communities. Sport in Australia has come to be known as one of the defining characteristics of the nation. Just like other Australian icons such as the Kanagroo, Sydney Harbour Bridge, etc; Australian citizens have a strong passion for all types of sports. Australians are encouraged to engage in any sport of their choice in a quest to inspire a healthy lifestyle. While sport is said to play a significant role in the binding of our nation, only recent have studies begun to address the impact that sport has

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    Juvenile Justice

    1749 words, 7 pages

    Title: Protecting Juvenile Offenders in Vietnamese and Australian Criminal Justice Systems: A Comparative Approach In civilized society, human rights, including the rights of an accused person should be respected. Many countries drawing on distinctive features of their history, socio-economic foundations and legal traditions have policies to improve the protection of human rights, especially the rights of juvenile offenders. Since signing international treaties regarding the protection of juveniles, particularly the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Vietname

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    The Economic Cost Generated By The Alcohol Consumption

    1745 words, 7 pages

    This report is to identify the situation of excessive alcohol use, the cost generated by the alcohol consumption and the current policy provided by the Australian government and analyse whether alcopop tax works effective or not. Also, the report will provide recommendation on what the government could do to reduce the alcohol consumption. Excessive alcohol consumption not only damages personal health, but also causes societal dangers such as car accidents, domestic and public violence crime which contributes to social dysfunction and family separation. Drinking too much alcohol would put p

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    Review Of The Mixed Member Proportional System

    1767 words, 8 pages

    The nature of the electoral system is fundamental importance to a nation's political institution.It shapes the rules of the game under which a democracy is practiced and it is often argued that it is the easiest political institution to manipulate, for good or for bad. There are several voting systems used around the world, such as the mixed-member proportional representation system. This system was initially used to vote in German Bundestag representatives, but was later adopted by other legislatures all over the world. The MMP system in New Zealand began in 1993. Over

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    Racism In Ethnic Communities

    2166 words, 9 pages

    To rationalise or make sense? of the Australian states attempts to control Aboriginal socialisation and identity we must first look into the foundation of the racist ideology and the archaic scientific theories held by the governing body at that time. It could be argued that racism is a virulent and hateful form of collectivism, it is mass exclusion that creates mass poverty and despair. Racial discrimination is in reality ethnic conflict and is characterised by territorial protectionism basing its ideology on the subconscious philosophical residue of European-style racial theories. Holli

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