Ovarian Cancer Gynecologic Malignancies

5162 words - 21 pages

Intro Sample...


Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the
highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States
female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among
cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer,
when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients
which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3).

Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by the lack of appropriate
tumor markers and clinically, most patients fail to develop significant
symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease. The characteristics
of ovarian cancer have been studied in... View More »

Body Sample...


OCCA represents approximately 6% of ovarian cancers and bilateral
ovarian involvement occurs in less that 50% of patients even in advanced cases.

The association of OCCA and endometriosis is well documented (De La Cuesta,
243). This was confirmed by Kennedy et al who encountered histologic or intraoperative
evidence of endometriosis in 45% of their study patients. Transformation
from endometriosis to clear cell adenocarcinoma has been previously demonstrated in
sporadic cases but was not observed by Kennedy et al. Hypercalcemia occurs in a
significant percentage of patients with OCCA. Patients with advanced disease are more
typically affected than patients with nonmetastatic disease. Patients with OCCA are also
more likely to have Stage I disease than are patients with ovarian epithelial cancer in
general (Kennedy, 348).

Histologic grade has been useful as an initial prognostic determinant in some studies
of epithelial cancers of the ovary. The grading of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has
been problematic and is complicated by the multiplicity of histologic patterns found in
the same tumor. Similar problems have been found in attempted grading of clear cell
adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (Disaia, 176). Despite these problems, tumor
grading has been attempted but has failed to demonstrate prognostic significance.
However, collected data suggest that low mitotic activity and a predominance of clear
cells may be favorable histologic features (Piver, 136).

Risk ...

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