Adverbs in other languages
Other languages may form adverbs in different ways, if they are used at all:
In Dutch and German, adverbs have the basic form of their corresponding adjectives and are not inflected (except for comparison in which case they are inflected like adjectives, too). Consequently, German primary-school teaching uses a single term, Eigenschaftswort, to refer to both adjectives and adverbs. However German linguists avoid this term.
In Scandinavian, adverbs are typically derived from adjectives by adding the suffix ‘-t’, which makes it identical to the adjective’s neuter form. Scandinavian adjectives, like English ones, are inflected in terms of comparison by adding ‘-ere’/’-are’ (comparative) or ‘-est’/’-ast’ (superlative). In inflected forms of adjectives the ‘-t’ is absent. Periphrastic comparison is also possible.
In Romance languages many adverbs are formed from adjectives (often the feminine form) by adding ‘-mente’ (Portuguese, Spanish, Italian) or ‘-ment’ (French, Catalan). Other adverbs are single forms which are invariable. In Romanian, the vast majority of adverbs are simply the masculine singular form of the corresponding adjective – one notable exception being bine (“well”) / bun (“good”).
Interlingua also forms adverbs by adding ‘-mente’ to the adjective. If an adjective ends in c, the adverbial ending is ‘-amente’. A few short, invariable adverbs, such as ben, “well”, and mal, “badly”, are available and widely used.
In Esperanto, adverbs are not formed from adjectives but are made by adding ‘-e’ directly to the word root. Thus, from bon are derived bone, “well”, and ‘bona’, ‘good’.
Modern Standard Arabic forms adverbs by adding the indefinite accusative ending ‘-an’ to the root. For example, kathiir-, “many”, becomes kathiiran “much”. However, Arabic often avoids adverbs by using a cognate accusative plus an adjective.
Austronesian languages appear to form comparative adverbs by repeating the root (as in WikiWiki), similarly to the plural noun.
Japanese forms adverbs, depending on the adjective’s nature, either by changing the final syllable from ã„ to ã or by changing the particle that follows from ãª to ã«. Certain adjectives cannot be made into adverbs, among other restrictions on their use.
In Gaelic, an adverbial form is made by preceding the adjective with the preposition go (Irish) or gu (Scottish Gaelic), meaning ‘until’.
In Modern Greek, an adverb is most commonly made by adding the endings <-Î±> and/or <-Ï‰Ï‚> to the root of an adjective. Often, the adverbs formed form a common root using each of these endings have slightly different meanings. So, <Ï„ÎÎ»ÎµÎ¹Î¿Ï‚> (
In Latvian, an adverb is formed from an adjective, by changing the masculine or feminine adjective endings -s and -a to -i. “Labs”, meaning “good”, becomes “labi” for “well”. Latvian adverbs have a particular use in expressions meaning “to speak” or “to understand” a language. Rather than use the noun meaning “Latvian/English/Russian”, the adverb formed form these words is used. “Es runÄju latviski/angliski/krieviski” means “I speak Latvian/English/Russian”, or very literally “I speak Latvianly/Englishly/Russianly”. When a noun is required, the expression used means literally “language of the Latvians/English/Russians”, “latviešu/angÄ¼u/krievu valoda”.
In Ukrainian, an adverb is formed by removing the adjectival suffices “-Ð¸Ð¹” “-Ð°” or “-Ðµ” from an adjective, and replacing them with the adverbial “-Ð¾”. For example, “ÑˆÐ²Ð¸Ð´ÐºÐ¸Ð¹”, “Ð³Ð°Ñ€Ð½Ð°”, and “Ð´Ð¾Ð±Ñ€Ðµ” (fast, nice, good) become “ÑˆÐ²Ð¸Ð´ÐºÐ¾”, “Ð³Ð°Ñ€Ð½Ð¾”, and “Ð´Ð¾Ð±Ñ€Ðµ” (quickly, nicely, well). As well, note that adverbs are placed before the verbs they modify: “Ð”Ð¾Ð±Ñ€Ð¸Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð½ Ð³Ð°Ñ€Ð½Ð¾ ÑÐ¿Ñ–Ð²Ð°Ñ”.” (A good son sings niceley/well)
In Korean, adverbs are formed by replacing ë‹¤ of the dictionary form of a verb with ê²Œ. So, ì‰½ë‹¤ (easy) becomes ì‰½ê²Œ (easily).
In Turkish, the same word usually serves as adjective and adverb: iyi bir kÄ±z (“a good girl”), iyi anlamak (“to understand well).
 Adverbs in English
In English, adverbs of manner (answering the question how?) are often formed by adding -ly to adjectives. For example, great yields greatly, and beautiful yields beautifully. (Note that some words that end in -ly, such as friendly and lovely, are not adverbs, but adjectives, in which case the root word is usually a noun. There are also underived adjectives that end in -ly, such as holy and ugly.) The suffix -ly derives from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “like”.
In some cases, the suffix -wise may be used to derive adverbs from nouns. Historically, -wise competed with a related form -ways and won out against it. In a few words, like sideways, -ways survives; words like clockwise show the transition. Again, it is not a foolproof indicator of a word being an adverb. Some adverbs are formed from nouns or adjectives by appending the prefix a- (such as abreast, astray). There are a number of other suffixes in English that derive adverbs from other word classes, and there are also many adverbs that are not morphologically indicated at all.
Comparative adverbs include more, most, least, and less (in phrases such as more beautiful, most easily etc.).
The usual form pertaining to adjectives or adverbs is called the positive. Formally, adverbs in English are inflected in terms of comparison, just like adjectives. The comparative and superlative forms of some (especially single-syllable) adverbs that do not end in -ly are generated by adding -er and -est (She ran faster; He punches hardest). Others, especially those ending -ly, are periphrastically compared by the use of more or most (She ran more quickly). Adverbs also take comparisons with as … as, less, and least. Not all adverbs are comparable; for example in the sentence He died yesterday it does not make sense to speak of “more yesterday” or “most yesterday