Anorexia Nervosa is basically a complicated and sophisticated condition to any particular human being involving psychological, neurobiological and sociological and environmental parts.
Though it is extremely important for clinicians related in their specific fields to acknowledge about the main three popular and “come into effect” factors and the variety causes of this sort of eating disorder, we as common human beings should consider absorbing mentally the knowledge about them for our benefit.
Sociological and environmental factors
Sociocultural studies have bolded in clearly the role of cultural factors, for instance, promotion of thinness as the perfect female form in Western industrialized countries especially the U.S particularly through their media. A not long ago epidemiological study of about million Swedish residents pointed out that sex, race, and social status connected with the amount of money generated in their occupations were huge impacts on the chance of having Anorexia, with those with non- European parents among the least apt to be diagnosed with the condition and those in upper-class, white families being more at risk. Perhaps, this belief of the cause of Anorexia is true is true to certain people who goes by the western tradition, but the certain ladies’ professions that come along in effect of the condition is another way of observing who are more likely to have the diagnosis of this noticeable eating disorder in western countries. This theory has been put to a study by Gomer and Garfinkel in November 1980 in which explains in their words that women who hold jobs where there is particular social pressure to be thin (such as models and dancers) are much more apt to develop Anorexia during the course of their careers. These are specific cases mostly seen in the media by the astonishing eyes of us viewers. Perhaps, we can put aside this hypothesis develop by these professionals researchers and bring forth and unusual suspect responsible for the cause of Anorexia in the social manner-the internet. The most extensive computer network around the globe enables not only anorexics but other affective eating disorder people such as bulimics to contact and communicate with each other outside of their treatment environment. Some websites included in the internet have permitted those affected by Anorexia to make online pro-ana groups that reject the medical view and reason that Anorexia is a “life- style and same choice”, mutual and for one and another and to provide weight-lost – tips. These sites were highlighted as to the media’s interest such as TIME magazine that started out this issue involving the probable over all cause and maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa upon youth girls accordingly to the articles “Anorexia goes high tech” by Jessica Reaves in July 31, 2007, became major worries or concerns for younger women as victims to take part in these absurd groups of anorexics to develop or maintain Anorexia Nervosa and as a result many of them were taken off line.
Psychological of Factor of developing Anorexia Nervosa
There has been essential amount of work about the psychological factors that suggest how biases or one-sidedness in thinking and understanding support to maintain or encourage the risk of getting Anorexia Nervosa.
At first, it has been hypothesized by many specialists and eating disorders particularly Anorexia and other professionals that the behavior or attitude responded by anorexics is thought to come originally from feelings of fatness and unattractiveness. It has also been believed that those very same emotions are maintain by a variety of cognitive biases that changes how the influenced person evaluates and thinks about their body, food, and eating.
On of the most well- known findings is that individuals with Anorexia tend to over-asses the size or fatness of their own bodies, a recent review of research done by faculty associates of the department Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Philipps- University in Germany, in this specific field, suggested that “This is not a perceptual problem, but one of how the perceptual information is evaluated by the affected person.” They also suggested that “people with Anorexia Nervosa may lack a type of overconfidence bias in which the majority of people feel themselves more attractive than others would rate them.” Perhaps, this partial research of study can apply to certain U.S.’s celebrities because they became frankly and positively assured they carry the most impression then others with their fascinating body appearances mentioned in popularity magazines People and OK!.
Research into the neruropsychology of Anorexia made by the four members from the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s college in England in the year 2005, has pointed out that “Many of the findings are inconsistent across studies and that it is hard to differentiate the effects of starvation on the brain from any long- standing characteristics but those with Anorexia have poor cognitive feelings.” So finding this way through research to be a causing factor of the disorder seems to be an impossible task to complete. Simply because certain individual is starving because it hasn’t eaten all day doesn’t make the person automatically an affected anorexic being.
In May 2003, Professor Chris Fairburn of the University of Oxford and his collegians have created a “transdiagnostic” model in which they target their priority of explaining how Anorexia as well as related disorders like Bulimia Nervosa and ED-NOS, are maintain. They stated out that “This model is based on idea that all major eating disorders (with the exception of obesity) shares same core types of psychopathology which help maintain the eating disorder behavior.” This must be true indeed because these eating disorders as far as I know in my mind do have significant correlations among themselves in terms of their characteristics or symptoms given by experts in these areas of mental health and illnesses related the psychological factor such as poor insight, self-evaluation largely and perfectionism.
Neurobiological factors of Anorexia
There are tight line ups between neurotransmitter serotonin and different psychological symptoms like mood and sleep. Recently, several members of the School of Medicine at Pittsburg University and from Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, did review of the scientific literature that proposed Anorexia is linked to a disturb serotonin system particularly to high states at sections in the brain with the 5HT1A receptor-a system specifically linked to nervousness, mood, and impulse control. Thusly, it is evidential by words of those experts about this delicate and essential connection that both personality traits and disturbances to the serotonin system are still presumed after patients have recovered from Anorexia, suggesting that these disturbances are apt to be lethal factors. Other recent studies claimed that the same eating disorder may be connected to a self-immune response to meloncortin peptides-influential particles to be anorexic’s appetite and stress responses.
Diagnoses of Anorexia Nervosa on affected individual
The most commonly used criteria for diagnosing Anorexia are from American Psychiatric Association’s diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM4) also known as in it’s abbreviated form the DSM4-TR.
With the application of this vary essential criteria across the U.S. nation; clinicians are enabled to beneficially for their own knowledge to scrutinize properly their patients for the factors and symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa. In order, of course, to absolutely assure a particular individual is diagnosed as having Anorexia, according to the DSM4-TR and as follows properly with respect of the list below, as the person must show:
• Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height.
• Intense fear of becoming heavier or becoming obese.
• Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced, undue effect of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight.
• In postmenarcheal, premenopausal females (women who have had their first menstrual period however have not yet gone through menopause), amenorrhea (the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles).
• Or other disorders relating to the eating kind.
In an age of diet obsession, formed up underwear models and “a culture of muscularity”, some researchers say eating problems mostly resulted from Anorexia among men are getting worse in the Western industrialized nations particularly the United States. For most people in these societies, it is humorous and quite pitiful to acknowledge this reportedly news brought by Michael Hill, in an associated press writer in his article “Experts: Male Eating Disorders on Rise” in the year 2004. As I said earlier when
Common people from western nations think about eating disorders they associate them with women. Nevertheless, there are relative cases with anorexic men in reality.
In the case of Everts, a 43 year-old Albuquerque, N.M., resident, he still in the process of recovering from both Anorexia an Bulimia and get this for our continuous, “feeding in data” brain to understand more about men affected not necessarily with Anorexia Nervosa and except Obesity but with over eating disorders too. He said to Michael Hill that “We’re able to hide it much better and we don’t talk about it, where women would.” Hmm…. .No wonder just men affected with the once seemingly, only affected eating disorders to women” particularly Anorexia, are just beginning in their rise to become noticeable to the misbelieved society and media.
Male anorexics show the same factors and symptoms of those of anorexic women in addition they show tendency to take huge time of excessive exercises. Recent studies suggest men who are athletes and their weight is crucial to their performance such as jockeys, wrestlers, distance runners and gymnasts have a higher incidence of eating disorders. In addition, they can develop bad habits when weight loss is observed as a requirement of the sport. Just as women feel pressured to look like stick-skinny magazine models and renowned celebrities, men can be forced to concentrate the images of pumped-up hunks with broad shoulders, six-pack abs and narrow waists.
Images of perfect bodies can encourage the belief that “normal” bodies are not all right. What is actually the perfect body in an essence interpretation? Perhaps, it is something that composes us who we are really not since we have abused (e.g. skipping meals and in terms of engaging in purging after eating) all the possible ways for our original body to become something frankly to our blinded eyes unhealthy, unpleasurable and inconsequential to be seen by real sensible people.
Case study: Jenifer an adolescent girl with Anorexia’ impact at school and family
Jenifer, a senior at Michigan High School at age 17, was a talented musician and poet with an insightful, witty personality and an impressive I.Q. of 165. She still has loving parents, professors and her long-best and most caring and respectful friend Kathy. None the less, Jenifer was depressed suffice to enter psychotherapy and family therapy. What was she depressed about? She was depressed about her whole body appearance. “I am an enormous whale”, she described herself. “When I walked down the halls in my school, I feel like a hideous monster.”
Every friend of hers except Kathy permanently backed away and cut their once strong and very close friendship bonds with Jenifer due to her increase of body weight and fatness. Her other peers at school shunned Jenifer for the very same reasons. “I’m a good musician”, she declared wistfully, “but many guys are looking for a girl that has a nice body.”
With extreme concern hold on to the delicate psychological minds of Jenifer’s parents, Claire and Bob Donovan walked through the doors of Children’s Hospital of Michigan with their bone-thin daughter Jenifer. Jenifer had put herself into a very harsh “diet-fixation” and starved herself down to 85 pounds. Her profile was send to me by her medical Dr. Wachs just a day before the Donovan’s family came to my office. In it, states that when she was over weight and began to feel depressed, consistently looking her body’s reflection in the mirror obsessively and vomiting and purging after eating every meal, she weighed 141 pounds. Therefore, she has been diagnosed by the clinical doctor of having Anorexia. As her psychotherapist and family therapist, I will put the potentiality of my professional abilities to cure her and her parents will have to dispense food as if it were prescription drug by my orders of giving responsibilities.
They would gently but firmly tell her to rest in bed when she wouldn’t eat. And they would reward her with trips to the mall when she did. Later as Jenifer’s health returned, they would begin to let go of their 17- year-old little girl to get independent in choosing her college and spending time with friends. It has been my experience, using parents as tools in treating adolescent Anorexia is a radical new approach which leads to success in caring poor Anorexics like Jenifer and others affected with relating eating disorders. When this unique treatment and approach were marked in headlines in the newspapers and other resources, other therapists began practicing it. According to the statistics, 70 percent of Anorexics girls across the U.S. responded well to the treatment to target their normal, healthy weight. I’m so pleased with all this accomplishment.
As this discussion and the involvement of the case study of my female patient Jenifer have demonstrated Anorexia Nervosa is frankly a huge disturbance to people’s particularly from Western industrialized countries, sense of mind and as well as a cause for their negative, unhealthy physical appearance it is something that it should constantly fought against even though it is unstoppable to be brought by multiples of media and popular celebrities and even your own peers in your surroundings who should be blamed for. Blamed for what may you ask? The huge number of suicides committed by the affected Anorexics .Don’t hesitate to go against of this belief. So my words of advisements and suggestions to the Anorexics and those mentally- confused thinking about becoming one is to ignore them and just be grateful and for the body that makes u feel most comfortable. Remember, there’s no such thing as the perfect body or perfectionism.