Antisocial Behaviour

Word Count: 3831 |


It is easy to recognize aggression and anti-social behaviour, when we witness it but defining it often proves much more difficult.

This essay is going to try to pull together some of the research that has been carried out by different people to enable us a better understanding of what and why aggression and anti-social behaviour has evolved into such a wide talking point within our society.

This essay will look into the definitions of both aggression and anti-social behaviour; disorders such as ADHD and conduct disorder. This essay will then try to give a good understanding of risk factors including gender related aggression.

According to most studies undertaken differing parenting styles have a major impact on children’s ability to respond appropriately, therefore this essay is going to look into what the differing styles of parenting are and what implications they may have on the child.

Bullying, stealing, persistent lying/cruelty and aggression, are among some of the problems that might cause you considerable concern. This kind of behaviour is known to occur much more often in cities and towns than in country areas. There are many causes and they are liable to vary in different cultures. In general, however, some of the more important causes of anti-social behaviour include the bad influence of some peer pressure, and the insufficient parental discipline, especially where it is either too harsh or too soft – and on occasion, non-existent. Some people think that excessive exposure to films portraying such behaviours may also contribute. You should take seriously any form of anti-social behaviour.

Aggression is defined as an activity intended to harm or subject others to negative consequences it is rarely seen in children before the age of two. Some children display quite high levels of aggression. The aggressive child is often unable to make friendships with others and this can set up the familiar vicious spiral: the less accepted a child is the more extreme his behaviour tends to become. The child who has never stolen, never told a lie, never slapped anyone else in anger, probably doesn’t exist. There is usually no reason to worry about the minor transgression. However, there are some children who constantly behave in anti-social ways and they do give cause for concern.

The anti-social person is one who disregards society’s rules. In its mild form this anti-social behaviours consists of acts like fighting, pilfering or truancy, misdemeanours which many children indulge in from time to time. In severe forms the behaviour becomes more extreme and persistent: instead of an occasional lapse there is a constant pattern of anti-social activity. In its most extreme forms it becomes delinquency. The standard definition of a delinquent is a young person who has been found guilty of an offence which, if committed by an adult, would constitute as a crime.

Many factors have been identified that, while they do not cause anti-social behaviour, they do increase the risk of it happening. Four main areas have been identified (Home Office, Research Development & statistics, ASB – A collection of Published evidence, 2004)

Family environment – Risk factors include poor parental discipline and supervision; family conflict between parents or between parents and children; family history of problem behaviour and/or parental attitudes condoning problem behaviour.

Schooling & educational attainment – Risk factors include; aggressive behaviour like bullying; lack of commitment to school; school disorganisation; school exclusion and truancy patterns and low achievement at school.

Community life / accommodation / employment – Risk factors include; community disorganisation and neglect the availability of drugs and alcohol; lack of neighbourhood attachment; growing up in a deprived area within low income families, high rates of unemployment and a high turnover of population and areas where there are high levels of vandalism.

Personal and individual factors – Risk factors include alienation and lack of social commitment; early involvement in problem behaviour; attitudes that condone problem behaviour; for young people a high proportion of unsupervised time spent with peers and friends or peers involved in problem behaviour; mental illness and/or early involvement in the use of illegal drugs and crime.

Sigmund Freud saw aggression as being biologically driven: humans, especially males, are programmed to fight over food, territory and the opposite sex. Cross-cultural studies, however, show that even if it will be accepted that aggression is biological in origin, environmental factors can modify it.

Differences between the sexes in levels of aggression are acknowledged by biological theorists and environmentalists, the one group saying that it’s all in the genes, the other that social conditioning explains the difference. What is clear is that gender differences do exist. Data gathered from over a hundred studies carried out all over the world, boys are more aggressive than girls, both physically and verbally. They engage in mock – fighting and aggressive fantasies, as well as in direct forms of aggression more often than girls.

The environmentalist’s viewpoint is to some extent supported by observations of the families of aggressive children. Young children are also more likely to show aggression if they have aggressive older brothers or sisters.

Certain chemicals have been shown to influence aggression. For example, the injection of testosterone, a male sex hormone, will increase aggression in animals.

Among human beings, there are similar findings: James Dabbs and his colleagues found that naturally occurring testosterone levels are significantly higher among prisoners convicted of violent crimes than among those convicted of non-violent crimes. Also, once incarcerated, prisoners with higher testosterone levels violated more prison rules. Dabbs and his colleagues also found that juvenile delinquents have higher testosterone levels. It is clear that testosterone affects aggressiveness.

In a wide ranging survey of research on children, Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin found that boys are consistently more aggressive than girls. In one study, the investigators closely observed children at play in a variety of different countries, including the United States, Switzerland, and Ethiopia. Among boys, there was far more non playful pushing, shoving and hitting than among girls. Similarly, among adults worldwide, the overwhelming majority of persons arrested for violent crimes are men.

Rejected children, are likely to be those who show high levels of aggression towards their peers. Such children seem to have different role models of relationships and of aggression than popular children do. Kenneth Dodge has shown that aggressive children are much more likely to see aggression as a useful way to solve problems; more importantly, they can see attack or antagonism in others, behaviours much more readily than is true for less aggressive children. Given an ambiguous event, such as being hit in the back with a ball, chronically aggressive boys are much more likely to assume that the ball was thrown on purpose, and retaliate. Of course such retaliation, in turn, is likely to elicit hostility from others, so their expectation that other people are hostile to them is further confirmed. (Dodge & Frame, 1982; Dodge et al., 1990).

Research can also be linked to Gerald Patterson’s work on aggressive boys. His research supports the conclusion that the child’s excess aggressiveness can be traced originally to ineffective parental control. When the child displays the same behaviour with peers, he is rejected by those peers and then driven more and more towards the only set of peers who will accept him, usually other aggressive or delinquent boys.

In fact, there is now a growing body of research showing that rejection by one’s peers in primary school is one of the very few aspects of childhood functioning that consistently predicts behaviour problems or emotional disturbances in adolescence and adulthood (Kupersmidt & Coie, 1990; Dishion et al, 1991).

Parents need to look carefully at their own ability to control their aggressive feelings. If they launch hostile attacks, physical or verbal, against their children or each other, the children will learn that it is acceptable to behave in this way.

An American study by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck dated from the early 1950’s, but still the conclusions still ring true today, comparing delinquent and non- delinquent children, the Gluecks found that delinquent children tended to come from less cohesive families, where there was a high level of hostility between parents and children and, perhaps most important of all. Where parental discipline swung confusingly between the ultra-strict and extremely permissive.

We now turn to the most frequently diagnosed disruptive disorder of childhood (ADHD) – attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The frequency with which ADHD is diagnosed is the main reason it is so controversial. Some people think it is over diagnosed. They believe ADHD has become a convenient label that absolves adults of the responsibility for disciplining children. Even some experts think ADHD is over diagnosed in the United States.

It is certainly not uncommon for parents and teachers to complain that children are over active and restless, that they won’t sit still, and that they cannot concentrate for long. What they usually mean is that the youngsters won’t concentrate for as long as the adults would like them to, but, most of these children are well within the normal range for there age. In contrast, there are children that show extreme attention problems and over activity, both at home and at school, and they can truly be regarded as having ADHD.

Looking at a specific case, James had an especially severe form of ADHD, he was hyperactive and always on the go. He was impulsive, often with no regard to physical danger and he had problems focusing his attention on any task without a great deal of support from teachers. These are all characteristic of ADHD and even with good parenting can often be difficult to manage. (Abnormal Psychology)

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD, a child must show developmentally inappropriate attention problems, impulsiveness, and motor hyperactivity. In the classroom, the attention difficulties are often manifested in an inability to stick with specific tasks. Children with ADHD have difficulty organizing and completing work. They often give the impression that they are not listening or that they have not heard what they have been told. Just sitting still seems to be a major challenge for them. These children do not appear to have specific problems with processing information, such as a learning disorder; instead their problems lie in self – regulation (Henker and Whalen, 1989).

When they interact with peers, children with ADHD are sometimes awkward and disorganized. It is not surprising that they are often rejected by others as annoying and intrusive (Hinshaw and Melnick 1995). Similarly, at home they are described as failing to follow through on parental requests and failing to sustain activities, including play, for periods of time that are appropriate for their age.

Of course, children with ADHD encounter the greatest problems in the classroom, so, teachers are often the first to recognized ADHD in a child. This is especially true of children from lower-income families. Many children grow out of the symptoms as they get older, studies of clinical samples indicate that 40 to 80% of children still meet the criteria for ADHD in adolescence, and some continue to show symptoms in adulthood (Fischer, Barkley, Fletcher and Smallish 1993; Zametkin and Ernst, 1999).

Children with ADHD are also prone to conduct disturbances. About 45 to 60% of children with ADHD develop conduct disorder, delinquency, or drug abuse, compared to about 16% of youngsters without ADHD (Barkley, Fischer, Edelbrock, and smallish, 1990; Hinshaw and Melnick; 1995; Moffitt and Silva, 1988). Not surprisingly, children with ADHD also tend to do poorly in school, and over 20% have a learning disorder. As adults, they are at greater risk for interpersonal problems, frequent job changes, traffic accidents, marital disruptions, and legal infractions (Fischer, Barkley, Fletcher and smallish, 1993; Henker and Whalen, 1989).

One obvious type of externalizing problems is, in layman’s terms, delinquency or anti-social behaviour. In the most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (called DSM-111-R), these patterns are referred to as conduct disorders. The category includes such antisocial and/or aggressive behaviours as argumentativeness, bullying, disobedience, high levels of irritability and threatening and loud behaviour. Children diagnosed as having conduct disorders may have temper tantrums or may physically or verbally attack others (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1982). Those labelled as delinquent show any or all of these patterns plus some deliberate violation of the law.

The origins of Conduct Disorders seem to be strongly environmental, Patterson’s research shows that failure in early parental discipline, and/or direct reinforcement for aggressive behaviour within the family are part of the causal chain for many boys (Patterson, Capaldi, & Bank, 1991). Patterson’s work, along with most other current work in this area, show that a more complex system model is needed to understand the pathways leading to persistent conduct disorders. To be able to predict which children will develop a conduct disorder, we must not only know something about the child’s overall environment, we also have to understand the child’s temperament, protective factors (like maternal loving affection), and the sustaining conditions, such as lack of social skills or poor peer acceptance (Bates et al; 1991). Children who are rejected by their peers in early primary school, for whatever reason, are at much higher risk of developing conduct disorder in adolescence or adulthood, and recall that part of the reason for poor peer acceptance seems to lie in a child’s social cognition.

There is significant gender difference in the rate of conduct disorder. It is at least three times more common in boys than in girls, with 6 to 16% of boys and 2 to 9% of girls qualifying for a diagnosis of conduct disorder (APA, 1994; Robins, 1991, smith 1998). Gender is one of the most powerful predictors of conduct disorder. Also, the behavioural patterns differ for males and females, girls are less likely to show physical aggression and more likely to lie and be truant.

Numerous studies have shown that children with conduct problems are more likely to come from disorganized social environment is often characterized by lack of affection, high levels of discard, harsh and inconsistent discipline (Farrington, 1978; Hetherington and Martin, 1979; Loeber and Dishion, 1983; Loeber, 1990; Toupin, Dery, Pauze, Fortin and Mercier, 1997). In many cases, the children’s activities are poorly supervised and monitored. As might be expected, parental divorce and separation are quite common. Some of the most interesting findings on this issue come from adopted studies (Cadoret and Stewart, 1991). Adopted children who show aggressive and antisocial behaviours as young adults are more likely to come from adoptive homes characterized by low socioeconomic status and poor parental adjustment. This relation cannot be attributed to genetic factors, because the parents and children have no genetic relation. Nonetheless, adoptees whose biological parents show aggressive or antisocial behaviour seem to be at greater risk for showing the same behaviour if they are reared in unstable environment. In families of children with conduct disorder, patterns of interaction between family members are often characterized by coercive behaviour and a lack of reinforcement for pro-social behaviours (Frick, 1994, Patterson, Reid, and Dishion, 1998).

The largest body of research on television effects has focused on the potential impact of television on children’s aggressiveness, not only because television programs in the United States are clearly high in aggression, but because any causal relationship between television violence and children’s aggression would be cause for grave concern.

There is no dispute about the high level of violence on television, or about the fact that this level has not declined in the past decades despite many public outcries. Nancy Signorielli (1986) estimates that in 1985, situation comedies averaged about 2 incidents of physical violence per hour, and action/adventure programs averaged 8 per hour. The rate is still higher in children’s cartoons and would be far higher for all types of programs if verbal aggression were also counted.

Several dozen short-term experiments have been done in which some children have been exposed to a few episodes of moderately aggressive television while others watch neutral programs. After this exposure the experimenters then observe the subjects interacting with one another in natural settings and counted the number of episodes of aggressive behaviour. These studies generally do show that those who watched the aggressive programs show slightly higher rates of actual aggression (Wood, Wong, and Chachere, 1991).

For parents, the clear moral from all the research on TV is that television is an educational medium. Children learn from what they watch – vocabulary words, helpful behaviours, eating habits, and aggressive behaviours and attitudes. The overall content of television – violence and all – may indeed reflect general cultural values. But an individual family can pick and choose among the various cultural messages by controlling what the child watches on television.

Every family has its own individual lifestyle, its own rules about the way things are organized and decisions are made. There are four basic parental styles.

The Authoritarian type – children growing up in Authoritarian families- with high levels of demand and control but relatively low levels of warmth or responsiveness – typically are less skilled with peers than are children from other types of families, and they have lower self-esteem. Some of these children appear subdued; others may show high aggressiveness or other indications of being out of control. Which of these two outcomes occurs may depend in part on how skilfully the parents use the various disciplinary techniques. Patterson finds that the ‘out of control’ child is most likely to come from a family in which the parents are authoritarian by inclination, but lack the skills to enforce the limits or rules they set. (Dornbusch et al 1987) have found that teenagers from authoritarian families have poorer grades in school than do teenagers from authoritative families.

The permissive type – children growing up with indulgent or permissive parents also show some negative outcomes. Dornbusch finds that they do slightly less well in school in adolescence, are likely to be more aggressive particularly if the parents are specifically permissive towards aggressiveness – and to be somewhat in their behaviour with peers and in school. They are less likely to take responsibility and are less independent.

The Authoritative type – the most consistently positive outcomes have been associated with the authoritative pattern, in which the parents are high in both control and warmth, setting clear limits but also responding to the child’s individual needs. Children reared in such families typically show higher self – esteem, are more independent but at the same time are more likely to comply with parental requests, and may show more altruistic behaviour as well. They are self – confident and achievement oriented in school and get better grades; they are less likely to show depression or delinquency (Dornbusch et al: 1987; Steinberg, Elmen & Mounts, 1989; Crockenberg & Litman, 1990).

The Neglecting type – in contrast, the most consistently negative outcomes are associated with the fourth pattern, the neglecting or uninvolved type. One of the common family characteristics of children rated as insecure/avoidant is the ‘psychological unavailability’ of the mother. The mother may be depressed or may be overwhelmed by other problems in her life and simply not have made any deep emotional connection with the child. Whatever the reason, such children continue to show disturbances in their relationships with peers and with adults for many years. In less extreme cases the effects are also detectable. Robert Hinde and Joan Stevenson – Hinde (1986), in a short-term longitudinal study, found that children whose mothers showed a somewhat odd combination of friendliness and high levels of hostility with peers eight months later and at adolescence, youngsters from neglecting families are more impulsive, antisocial, and much less achievement oriented in school (Block,1971; Pulkkinen, 1982).

Differing parenting styles are often formed by learnt behaviours and follow through from generation to generation.

In conclusion it would appear from the immense amount of research into aggression and anti-social behaviour that children who are brought up in deprived areas and/or subjected to poor parenting are much more likely to have problems with aggression and/or anti-social behaviours. It also suggests that children with behavioural disorders such as ADHD or conduct disorder stand a higher risk of becoming aggressive. Aggression is the onset of becoming anti-social. Children who present as anti-social, are often outcast from society and thus the cycle of rejection/aggression becomes much more of a problem.


Aronson.E (2004) 9th Edition, Social Animal, Worth publishers.

Bee.H (1992) 6th Edition, The Developing Child, Collins.

Dr.B.Lask (1991), Children’s Problems, Macdonald & Co Ltd.

Gross.D.Richard (1992) 2nd Edition, Psychology, The Science of Mind and Behaviour, Hodder and Stoughton.

Seligman.P et al (2001) 4th Edition, Abnormal Psychology, Norton and Company.

Walker.M and Lansdown.R (1991), Your Child’s Development from Birth to Adolescence, Frances Lincole publishes.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Allegory Of American Pie By Don Mc Lean

Ask anyone what was the defining moment in the rock history of the 1960s was and all you will get is a one word answer: Woodstock. The three day rock festival that defined an era was only one of many music festivals of the '60s. But Woodstock has come to symbolize, "an era of peaceful, free- loving, drug- taking hippie youth, carefree before harsher realities hit..." (Layman 40). The Woodstock festival ended a century filled with many metamorphoses of rock'n'roll, from the era of pop music to the rebirth of folk music to the invention of acid rock. But some cynics say that rock'n'roll died with the death of Buddy Holly before the 60s even began. One such person is Don McLean. The poet behind the haunting epic song about the death of 'danceable' music, McLean wrote the ever popular song, "American Pie" (appendix 1). The most important song in rock'n'roll history, "American Pie", is the song about the demise of rock'n'roll after Buddy Holly's death and the heathenism of rock that resulted. Although McLean himself won't reveal any symbolism in his songs, "American Pie" is one of the most analyzed pieces of literature in modern society. Although not all of its secrets have been revealed, many "scholars" of the sixties will agree that the mystery of this song is one of the reasons it has become so successful- everyone wants to know the meanings of its allegories. Proof of "American Pie's" truth lies in the allegory of the song. Many People enjoy the song but have no idea what it means- Who is the Jester? What is the levee? When the deeper story is found, the importance of the song is unearthed. "American Pie" is not only a song, it is an epic poem about the course of rock'n'roll...

Carl Orffs Philosophies In Music Education

While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first attempts at composing. Although Orff was adamant about the secrecy of his past, Moser's Musik Lexicon says that he studied in the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. Orff then served in the military in the first world war. After the war, he held various positions in the Mannheim and Darmstadt opera houses then returned home to Munich to further study music. In 1925, and for the rest of his life, Orff was the head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich where he worked with musical beginners. This is where he developed his Music Education theories. In 1937, Orff's Carmina Burana premiered in Frankfurt, Germany. Needless to say, it was a great success. With the success of Carmina Burana, Orff orphaned all of his previous works except for Catulli Carmina and the En trata which were rewritten to be acceptable by Orff. One of Orff's most admired composers was Monteverdi. In fact, much of Orff's work was based on ancient material. Orff said: I am often asked why I nearly always select old material, fairy tales and legends for my stage works. I do not look upon them as old, but rather as valid material. The time element disappears, and only the spiritual power remains. My...

Johann Sebastian Bach Biography

Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...


Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...