Cruelty And Violence

Word Count: 2386 |

CRUELTY AND VIOLENCE
Human beings share most of their traits and behaviors with animals but in different forms that make them similar to animals. The act of cruelty and violence is one of these common behaviors. Cruelty can be defined as the trait of lacking interest in suffering, disturbance and physical or psychological problems of others and even getting pleasure from inflicting pains or suffers. In a situation of cruelty physical harm isn’t needed as even getting pleasure from pains or suffers in mentality can be described as cruelty. Violence refers to the act of using aggression and abuse that leads to harming other creatures physically. In other words, it can be defined as physical force performed for the purpose of damaging or abusing. From definitions of cruelty and violence, it can be understood that they both don’t refer to same meaning that cruelty may lead to violence even if it is executed in physical form besides in mentality. For instance, someone has broken his leg that he is begging for help and in this situation if another person is watching this with disinterest, he is being cruel not violent. However, the act of beating or even killing someone includes both cruelty and violence. In both the Bible and Quran, cruelty and violence are described as the forbidden behaviors by demonstrating “If you are merciless to others, God will be merciless to you.” or “God will not forgive us unless we shed the blood of some innocent creature”. [3]
This essay will argue that humans are not unique in a situation of cruelty and violence as animals also carries these facilities. However humans are more cruel and violent than animals because of having consciousness and being aware of their intelligence, abilities and behaviors that makes the animals victims and having some unique features in being cruel like terrorism, homicide, genocide or killing for just taking revenge. In this essay there will be a comparison of cruelty and violence in humans and in animals in order to move to the idea of higher cruelty of the humans and animals victimness will be demonstrated that make references to the scientific observations that show domestic animals face with home violence. It will also be focused on that there is an important link between animal cruelty and human violence that means attempting to hurt animals may lead to held cruel behaviors towards humans in order to emphasize that humans are cruel both to humans and animals. So by focusing these points, in this essay the main argument will be higher crueltiness of humans.
As it is discussed before cruelty and violence are the common behaviors that disprove the idea of uniqueness of humans in a situation of cruelty and violence. So at this point we are similar to our animal relatives, but different in many cases, this can be demonstrated like this “Human aggression has many features that are essentially unknown among other species, such as ideological (even religious) motivation, use of advanced military technology, genocide, long delayed revenge and even multi generation feuding, and many patterns of homicide.”( Brushman and Baumetser 206). So as a result of these differences, humans can be considered as more cruel and violent than animals as they have consciousness which enables them to be aware of their behaviors. For instance, as Mark Twain demonstrates “The cat plays with frightened mouse; but she has this excuse, that she does not know the mouse is suffering. The cat is the moderate-unhumanly moderate: she only scares the mouse, she does not hurt it.”[5]. On the other hand, in spite of having consciousness there are several examples of human crueltiness such as digging out a person’s eye, tearing off enemy’s skin or driving splinters under a person’s nails[5]. So from these examples it is clear that humans are more cruel than animals, as they may held cruelty for even getting fun, taking revenge or satisfying themselves rather than for basic needs like animals.
Another point about human crueltiness is terrorism that can be defined as political violence which cannot be encountered in animals as they don’t have the ability to make politics according to their limited understanding of the world and intelligence. Terrorism leads to the violent and cruel behavior towards people and even wars that causes millions of deaths of innocent creatures that are unaware of the events like children or animals, in order to execute ideological or ethnic struggle that animals don’t carry. Furthermore, we used to make use of animals like elephants or horses that are called as military animals, in wars and put them in a situation of cruelty. At this point the purpose is to get benefit from their phisical superiority to humans in order to make more harm on the enemy.This shows humans crueltiness in a situation of desire to win or take revenge.
Besides terrorism, there is another act that is lowering human standards and putting them in more cruel situation.It is the inhuman use of animals to test products or scientific researches for the sake of our selfish selves. In this situation, people are testing toxic materials on animals that harms or even kills them. Despite having the chance of studying human tissues,cells and organs in medical research that may be more helpful than using animals, every year in the United States, millions of animals are used for experimentation and as a result of this they are infected with diseases, injected toxic chemicals or have their bones broken or severed and this fact is enough to demonstrate the human crueltiness on animals. However, animals also make use of other animals, but these are more basic than humans’ as they use each other for just surviving such as finding foods, defending themselves or finding place to live. For instance the parasites live in other creatures’ gastrals to get food and while doing this it makes harm on that creature. However, making use of another creature at this point is more innocent than the humans’. Because, animals are used in dangerous and harmful situations to satisfy humans’ selfish desires rather than being used for innocent reasons like finding food or defending itself. So, at this point it would be suitable to say that humans are crueler than animals in a situation of making use of animals for their benefits.
Human violence is not restricted with inhuman use of animals in industry or science; animals also face with domestic violence that puts them in a position of victim. Animals in these situations may be silent victims, who may be threatened, injured or killed by a violent family member to control or intimidate other members of the household. There are some reasons of harming domestic animals such as the violent person may want “To teach submission, to demonstrate and confirm power and control over the family, to punish the victim for leaving, to degrade the victim through involvement in the abuse or to prevent the victim from leaving or coerce her/him to return.”[6]. So at this point we can make a connection between animal cruelty and home violence that “A study in 1983 of New Jersey families referred to youth and family services for reasons of child abuse reported that 88% of cases had at least one member of the household who physically abused animals. An English researcher found that 83% of families reported for animal abuse also had children listed at high risk of abuse or neglect.”[4].
Humans’ more cruelty can be discussed in a different perspective which is called as culture. Some philosophers views that the origin of aggression, which leads to cruelty and violence, is culture. In other words, aggression is a learned behavior as some studies demonstrates “A study by Bandura at 1977 that children would behave more aggressively after observing a model perform aggressive acts, especially if they could copy model’s action directly.”(Brushman and Baumetser 206). So, this view argues that culture has an important effect on aggression as culture can be formed if there occurs relationships between people, in other words socialism brings relationships, relationships forms cultures and culture brings aggression. This vision refers to the idea that humans are crueler than animals as a result of their higher culture as it is described like this “Aggression is probably most effective and appealing to merely social animals. Solitary animals that get what they want from physical environment have little need to influence each other. Aggression among them is chiefly a matter of killing their foods and as such it isn’t likely to be directed against their own species. Social animals may negotiate their status hierarchies and resolve disputes by aggressive activity. Cultural animals live in a world with meanings (many of which condemn aggression) and elongated time perspective (in which the long-term costs of aggression become more apparent). Most cultures do restrain and condemn aggression. But because of the greater interdependence of cultural animals, the temptations to resort to aggression are legion.”[7]. So from this definition, it can be claimed that humans who are social and cultural animals are crueler than the others.
As it is mentioned before animals are faced with home violence and being used for industrial purposes or scientific research. There is an important link between human cruelty on animals and violence to human beings. In other words, anyone who attempts to hurt or harm animals, carries the potency to be cruel to humans too. Several researches have shown that most of the serial killers were cruel to animals when they were child and people who abuse animals are more likely to be involved in other criminal behaviors. “ A 1997 study by the MSPA and Northeastern University found that 70% of animal abusers had committed at least one other criminal offense and almost 40% had committed violent crimes against people, The Childhood Cruelty Toward Animals Among Criminals and Noncriminals study found that 25% of aggressive criminals confessed to five or more acts of childhood animal torture and A 1986 study by Tingle reported that 48% of convicted rapists and 30% of convicted child molesters admitted perpetrating acts of animal cruelty in their childhood or adolescence.”[6]. From these researches and results we can obtain that childhood cruelty towards wild, pet and stray animals differentiates into cruelty towards humans in adulthood and there exists a relationship between cruelty to animals and later violence against humans. For instance, the research of Felthous and Kellert points out the relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and aggressive behavior toward humans among criminals in adulthood. They studied on 152 aggressive and nonaggressive criminals and discovered that the majority of criminals had shown cruelty towards animals in childhood. There is an example of pathway to violence against humans: “15 year old boy Kipland Kinkel killed cats, possibly his own family’s cat, and a cow.
He also has a fascination with guns and a quick temper that led him to be expelled from school twice in one week, for acts of violence against fellow students.
He was accused of murdering both of his parents, then going on to his high school to open fire on his schoolmates, killing 2 and injuring another 22, on May 22, 1998. Police also found four bombs in his home.”[2]. At this point we can move to the idea that crueltiness to animals is basic form of crueltiness and this link is unique to humans as we cannot make a connection between animals’ cruelty to each other and to humans, as both of them may be hold for same purpose, for just surviving. So we can move to the idea of humans’ more crueltiness according this connection.
In conclusion, humans are not unique in a situation of cruelty and violence that animals also have these traits in different form that can be explained as humans are more cruel and violent than animals because of having consciousness which provides them to be aware of the outer world and their behaviors. So in this position animals are the victims who are exposured with pet violence, being infected with diseases or injected chemical toxics because of being used as test object in industry or science. At this point scientific researches have shown that cruelty towards animals is a pathway to violence against humans that most of the criminals who have been violent toward people share a common history of cruelty to animals. To sum up, according to scientific researches on humans and animals, the fact of domestic violence and link between cruelty to humans and to animals human beings are more cruel than animals as they are the only ones that get pleasure from inflicting pains or suffers in spite of having consciousness and this fact puts humans in higher crueltiness standard and animals in victim position.
REFERENCES:
[1] “Dog Tip: Humane Education and the Animal-Human Cruelty Connection”. Wednesday Apr 12, 2006.
[2] “Most People Who Have Been Violent Toward People Share a Common History of Cruelty to Humans”. Pet Luv Shack.
[3] “Cruelty and Violence in Bible”. The Skeptic’s Annotated Bible. < http://www.skepticsannotatedbible.com/cruelty/long.html>
[4]Shelburne, Eleanor. “A Social Sentinel: Acts of Animal Cruelty Can Point to an Offender’s Potential for Violence Against Humans”. ARKONLINE< http://www.arkonline.com/violence.html>
[5] Twain Mark. “The Damned Human Race: The Lowest Animal”. Letters from the Earth: Uncensored Writings by Mark Twain.Ed Bernardo De Voto. New York: Harper Collins, 1938.
[6] “Animal Cruelty/Domestic Violence Fact Sheet”. The Humane Society on The United States. http://www.hsus.org/hsus_field/first_strike_the_connection_between_animal_cruelty_and_human_violence/animal_cruelty_and_family_violence_making_the_connection/animal_crueltydomestic_violence_fact_sheet.html
Baumetser, Ray F. and Brad J. Bushman. “Human Nature and Aggressive Motivation:
Why Do Cultural Animals Turn Violent?”. Human Nature and Aggressive Motivation.2004: 205-220.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Allegory Of American Pie By Don Mc Lean

Ask anyone what was the defining moment in the rock history of the 1960s was and all you will get is a one word answer: Woodstock. The three day rock festival that defined an era was only one of many music festivals of the '60s. But Woodstock has come to symbolize, "an era of peaceful, free- loving, drug- taking hippie youth, carefree before harsher realities hit..." (Layman 40). The Woodstock festival ended a century filled with many metamorphoses of rock'n'roll, from the era of pop music to the rebirth of folk music to the invention of acid rock. But some cynics say that rock'n'roll died with the death of Buddy Holly before the 60s even began. One such person is Don McLean. The poet behind the haunting epic song about the death of 'danceable' music, McLean wrote the ever popular song, "American Pie" (appendix 1). The most important song in rock'n'roll history, "American Pie", is the song about the demise of rock'n'roll after Buddy Holly's death and the heathenism of rock that resulted. Although McLean himself won't reveal any symbolism in his songs, "American Pie" is one of the most analyzed pieces of literature in modern society. Although not all of its secrets have been revealed, many "scholars" of the sixties will agree that the mystery of this song is one of the reasons it has become so successful- everyone wants to know the meanings of its allegories. Proof of "American Pie's" truth lies in the allegory of the song. Many People enjoy the song but have no idea what it means- Who is the Jester? What is the levee? When the deeper story is found, the importance of the song is unearthed. "American Pie" is not only a song, it is an epic poem about the course of rock'n'roll...

Carl Orffs Philosophies In Music Education

While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first attempts at composing. Although Orff was adamant about the secrecy of his past, Moser's Musik Lexicon says that he studied in the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. Orff then served in the military in the first world war. After the war, he held various positions in the Mannheim and Darmstadt opera houses then returned home to Munich to further study music. In 1925, and for the rest of his life, Orff was the head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich where he worked with musical beginners. This is where he developed his Music Education theories. In 1937, Orff's Carmina Burana premiered in Frankfurt, Germany. Needless to say, it was a great success. With the success of Carmina Burana, Orff orphaned all of his previous works except for Catulli Carmina and the En trata which were rewritten to be acceptable by Orff. One of Orff's most admired composers was Monteverdi. In fact, much of Orff's work was based on ancient material. Orff said: I am often asked why I nearly always select old material, fairy tales and legends for my stage works. I do not look upon them as old, but rather as valid material. The time element disappears, and only the spiritual power remains. My...

Johann Sebastian Bach Biography

Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...

Michelangelo

Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...