Design Culture Reference Notes

DESIGN CULTURE REFERENCE NOTES

Thought these notes may be useful!

1: Harvard Referencing System
Introduction
There are many reasons for using references and bibliographies in your written work. One important reason is to demonstrate the range and depth of your research. By deploying quotations in your texts and by identifying sources of information, views and opinions, you are indicating to a reader how you have acquired your knowledge and you are also reinforcing your argument – making it more persuasive.
Clear and accurate referencing offers the reader the opportunity to understand how your arguments and ideas have been initiated and developed. It is a vital part of the dialogue of scholarship. It is also, of course, essential that you distinguish clearly between your own ideas and arguments and those of other people, if you are to avoid committing, and being charged with, plagiarism (see below).
You will, therefore, need to find out about referencing and the use of bibliographies early on in your studies, and work to develop your skills in these areas. Good referencing is not mechanical – it involves awareness and sensitivity – and it needs to be accurate, consistent and comprehensive.
Besides studying the brief notes given here, you will need to consult works in the library and on the student portal (http://students.plymouth.ac.uk) about research and referencing. We will also be discussing and emphasising the importance of referencing in the Research Skills module.
As mentioned at 9. above, for all your written work on the MA programme you are required to use the Harvard Referencing System. In exceptional circumstances you can make a case for using an alternative system if you think the Harvard system is inappropriate for the particular text you are writing.

Plagiarism
On the cover sheet for each piece of written work you are asked to affirm, by signing your name, that it is entirely your own work. If you use any kind of material (information, ideas, particular words or phrases) from a published source you must clearly indicate the source from which the material comes. Otherwise you are plagiarising – in effect you are stealing someone else’s work. Plagiarism is not permitted under any circumstances and is subject to severe penalties when detected.

It does not matter whether you are trying to deceive your tutor, by passing off borrowed material as your own work, or whether you simply reproduce words and phrases from a source without realising it. Either way, it is plagiarism. It is your responsibility to make sure you do not take material from a source without proper acknowledgement. That means you must take great care when you are taking notes while reading.

Guide to Referencing: The Harvard System

References within the text
When the Harvard system is used, acknowledgement of the work of others appears within the text; it includes making direct quotes and paraphrasing. (N.B. Footnotes do not need to be used with this system; however, your tutor may allow you to use them to expand or qualify points in the text). You need to note the author’s surname, followed by the year of publication and, for a direct quote, the page number.

Where you are citing from more than one work published by an author in one year you add a lower case letter after the year e.g. (Bloggs 1994a).

Where there are two authors, give the surnames of both authors.
Where there are three or more authors, give the surname of the first followed by et al.

There are several ways in which these references can be made; there are some examples below. (The full details of sources are given in the list of references at the end; see the next section).

Quotation
If you take a passage, a sentence, a phrase, or even a distinctive word from a book, article, or other source you must put the borrowed material in single quotation marks (with double quotation marks for a quote within a quote). Quotations and their introductory clauses need to be grammatically complete. If something is left out of the original quote then three dots should be used to show the omission. If you add words, these should be in square brackets.

e.g.
He lists twenty-four names of people who had ‘felt hitherto strange and unfamiliar desire to have images formed by light spontaneously fix themselves’ from as early as 1782 (Batchen 1990: 9).

e.g.
Whilst Williams (1989) suggested that ‘schools in Devon are…’

A longer quotation (more than three lines) should be indented and single spaced in a separate paragraph.

e.g.
Terry Eagleton explicitly links Freud’s psychoanalytic theories with his politics, claiming that his limitations as a political thinker were conditioned by his own historical circumstances.

When Freud turns to directly political themes, a notable coarsening of his intelligence sets in; like many a bourgeois intellectual, his ideological obtusenesses are at war with his native wit. If Freud had lived through a different, more hopeful political history, much in his theoretical doctrine would have been transformed. (Eagleton 1990: 283)

Paraphrase
If you paraphrase or summarise information or ideas from a book, article, or other source you must take great care to put the information into your own words, and you must, again, clearly indicate the source from which the information came.

e.g.
Biographies of Rossetti tend to differentiate the successive stages of his career by associating each of them with a particular woman in his life (Prettejohn 1997: 9).

e.g
E. H. Carr has observed that is a construct consequent upon the questions asked by the historian (Carr 1964).

e.g.
In a further article (Johnson 1989a) it is argued that…

e.g.
In this article (Nicholls et al. 1990) the view is taken that…

e.g.
This finding has been confirmed by other researchers in the United States (Smart 1986; Billings and Brown 1990).

Secondary Citation
Sometimes you need to cite the ideas of an author that were referred to in someone else’s writing, though, where possible, you should try to read the original source. You must show that you used the secondary source.

e.g.
Learmouth (1978 cited in Short 1984) acknowledges that it is impossible to…

List of references (Bibliography)

Introduction
All written work should include a list of references at the end detailing, in alphabetical order by author, all the sources you used to research the topic. (You may divide it into sections according to the format of the resources from which you have obtained information e.g. Books and Journals; Films; Websites etc.).

When there are two authors, cite them both. For three or more authors cite the first author followed by et al.

The following guide combines the conventions used in the Harvard System and the style recommended by the Faculty of Arts.

Book
1. Surname and initials of author (if editor/editors, put ed./eds in brackets after the name)
2. Year of publication (in brackets)
3. Title of book (in italics)
4. Edition (omit if first edition)
5. Place of Publication
6. Publisher
7. Page or chapter numbers if needed

e.g.
LaBelle, B. and Roden, S. (eds) (1999) Site of Sound: of Architecture and the Ear, Los Angeles: Errant Bodies Press

Article in edited book
1. Surname and initials of author
2. Year of publication (in brackets)
3. Title of article (in quotation marks)
4. In , then surname and initials of editor/editors of book, followed by (ed.)/(eds)
5. Title of book (in italics)
6. Place of publication
7. Publisher
8. Page numbers.

e.g.
Jameson, F. (1983) ‘Postmodernism and consumer society’ in Foster, H. (ed.), Postmodern Culture, London: Pluto Press, 111-126.

Article in journal/newspaper
1. Surname and initials of author
2. Year of publication (in brackets)
3. Title of article (in quotation marks)
4. Title of journal (in italics)
5. Volume number (in bold)
6. Part number (in brackets)
7. Page number(s).

e.g.
Hall, K. (2001) ‘An analysis of primary literary policy in England using Barthes’ notion of “readerly” and “writerly” texts’. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 1(2, August), 153-165.

Video and Film
1. Title (in italics)
2. Year of release (in brackets)
3. Medium
4. Director
5. Other relevant detail re. writers, performers etc.
6. Distributor
7. Other relevant detail re. physical characteristics e.g. size, length of film

e.g.
A Room with a View (1985) Film. Dir. James Ivory. Cinecom Intl. Films.

If you are citing the relevance of a particular individual, begin with that person’s name and contribution.

e.g.
Mifune, T. actor. Rashomon (1950) Dir. Akira Kurosawa. Daiei.

Television / Radio Programme
1. Title of programme (in italics) or, when in series, title of programme (in quotation marks) and title of series (in italics)
2. Broadcast date
3. Other relevant detail re. producer etc.
4. Network
5. Other relevant detail re. physical characteristics, length of programme etc.

e.g. ‘The First Human Clone’, Panorama (8 February 1999) British Broadcasting Corporation,. Video, 45 minutes.

If you are citing the relevance of a particular individual, begin with that person’s name and contribution.
e.g. Hitler, A. ‘1933: Master Race’, People’s Century (1995) British Broadcasting Corporation. Video, 55 minutes.

World Wide Web Document
1. Author or editor (if known)
2. Title of document (in quotation marks) followed by Online (in square brackets)
3. Location of document (full web address)
4. Access date (in square brackets)

e.g. Brown, M. ‘Impressionist painting’ [Online] http://www.fisk.edu/.html [27th September 1999]

Article in Electronic Journal
1. Author
2. Year of publication
3. Title of article (in quotation marks)
4. Title of journal (in italics)
5. Type of medium (in square brackets)
6. Volume, part of journal
7. Location of document (full web address)
8. Pages (if given) or other indicator of length
9. Available: Supplier/ Database name/ Identifier or number (if given)
10. Access date (in square brackets)

e.g. Anderson, B. (2002) ‘September 11 has turned out to be a good thing for America and the world’. The Independent [Online], 9 September 2002.
http://www.infoweb.newsbank.com/ Approx. 4 printed pages. Available: NewsBank Newspapers UK [12 September, 2002].

Miscellaneous
For information about citing letters, computer software, music recordings, performances, works of art, interviews, maps etc. please refer to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (available in Exeter and Exmouth Campus Libraries). Please note that when using these examples the elements of the entry are suitable for Harvard, but that you need to put the date of publication in round brackets after the first element.

Use of Latin
You will encounter a variety of Latin abbreviations in references, especially if the book or article is more than twenty years old. A list of the four most common abbreviations is given below. (It is not necessary to use these when using the Harvard referencing system).

1. ibid. [short for ibidem] meaning “in the same book, chapter etc.” and used when a reference is given to the same source as the immediately preceding reference. For clarity you should add the page number.
e.g.
59. Herzog, D. Poisoning the Minds of the Lower Orders, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998, p. 83.
60. Ibid., p. 84

2. loc. cit. [short for locato citato] meaning “in the passage already quoted”

3. op. cit. [short for opere citato] meaning “in the work already quoted”
Both loc. cit. and op. cit. are used when the full reference has already been given in an earlier footnote, but not in the immediately preceding one. For clarity, you should add the page number of the relevant passage and also the date if the author has more than one source listed in your footnotes.
e.g. 67. Herzog, op. cit. p. 80 [or 67. Herzog, op. cit. (1998) p. 80]

4. passim [from passus meaning scattered] and used when a point is made in many places, here and there or throughout a passage, a chapter or even a whole book.
e.g. a reference to ‘pp. 60-80’ might indicate a concentrated discussion of an idea, whereas ‘pp.60-80 passim’ shows that the idea makes numerous, but sporadic appearances.

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