Disarmament

Word Count: 1984 |

Disarmament

There are currently more than 35,000 nuclear warheads are currently stockpiled around the world! Many are ready to be launched at a moments notice and if all where deployed, it would be enough firepower to blow-up the world 6 times over. These warheads and other military weapon reserves are why the U.N. and several N.G.O.’s have been, and are currently in the process of promoting disarmament. Nuclear weapons are not the only concerns when it comes to disarmament; small arms, the arms trade, biological and chemical weapons, are all aspects of disarmament. These weapons will be discussed in the next few pages to get a brief understanding of what they have the potential of and a handful of things that have been done about it.
Modern disarmament began in the 16th century during the Tokugawa shogunate with the gradual reduction of guns. In two centuries, Japan passed from being the country with more guns per capita to producing (or importing) none. Most recently, major countries have been discouraging other nations from developing their own nuclear arms. Since the plan was presented in 1946, the United Nations Disarmament Commission has handled all nuclear substances peacefully. The political and economical barriers to disarmament are considerable, mostly based on the concentrated power to those supporting militaristic approach to foreign policy. One key barrier is many countries being fearful of being invaded, particularly by the U.S. have tried to secure or develop nuclear weapons. As a result, polices to limit military intervention maybe part of a larger demilitarization program. Other than nuclear weapons steps are being taking to slow down the selling, buying and use of small arms, and chemical and biological weapons. These weapons do not present as big of a threat immediately but because they are easier to obtain and in that why still pose to be a big treat.
“Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. The world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children… This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron.”— Former U.S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in a speech on April 16, 1953. (http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade.asp) The Arms Trade, buying or selling of arms, has a major effect on how millions of people live their lives. Beginning in the 14th century with the invention of gun powered, world spending on weapons has grown to an astronomical 914 billion dollars annually (http://www.cia.gov/factbook). During the Cold War (mid 1950’s till the late 1980’s) between the Soviet Union and the United States, both of the super-powers started developing and stockpiling more and more weapons. During that time period of 40 years, more arms were bought and sold than any other time in history. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all of the new independent countries made their armies smaller causing a huge surplus of arms. These weapons then found their way to other countries and where they were sold and used in other wars. Many of these weapons are in the hands of terrorist organizations, gorilla groups, and other gang associations.
Besides just illegal trafficking, the world superpowers spend great deals of money on weapons as well. There are five major spenders on military arms, the U.S. (350 billion a year), Russia (45 billion), France (40 billion), Japan (39 billion), and the United Kingdom (37 billion). These five countries account for 70% of the total spent by the world on military purposes. This is enough to support the United Nations for over two centuries! Also, to build just 11 radar-evading bombers, the world could put the 135 million children in the world through four years of primary school. The money spent on weapons by the world could be divided up to over 30 dollars a person for everyone in the world. The arms trade involves billions of dollars, but if disarmament can occur on a large scale then finances could be focused in different areas of need.
“In terms of carnage they cause, small arms indeed could well be described as weapons of mass destruction,” -Mr. Annan (U.N. Secretary General). Small arms are weapons of mass destruction, killing hundreds of thousands of people around the world each year. That’s far higher than the casualty count from conventional weapons of war like tanks, bomber jets or war ships. These lethal weapons are relatively cheap, highly portable, easily concealable, long lasting, and so easy to operate that a child as young as eight years old can carry and use them. These characteristics make small arms particularly appealing to illegal trafficking. They are often sold illegally in exchange for hard currency or goods such as diamonds, drugs, or other illegal imports. Estimates of the black market trade in small arms range from 2-10 billion dollars a year.
In parts of Africa an assault rifle can be purchased for the same amount as a chicken. This prompts many in those areas to just buy a weapon and kill for the chicken instead of buying it. This is just one example of why people feel that disarmament in smaller developing countries is important because then killing at a local level would be reduced dramatically.
A nuclear weapon gains its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. As a result, even a nuclear weapon with a small yield is significantly more powerful than the largest conventional explosives, and a single weapon is capable of destroying an entire city. The nuclear weapon that was detonated in Hiroshima was about 12kt, and the combined effects of the blast and radiation killed about 300,000 people. Most nuclear weapons that are assembled today are 100kt (Ware http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapon) which is 10 times larger than the Hiroshima bomb. This just goes to show the immense force that would be released if a nuclear weapon were set off.
Because of the immense military power they can deliver, the political control of nuclear weapons has been an important issue for as long as they have existed; in most countries the use of nuclear force can only be authorized by the head of government, for example, the President of the United States, or the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
In the 1960s steps were being taken to limit both the spread of nuclear weapons to other countries. The Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963) restricted all nuclear testing to underground nuclear testing, to prevent contamination from nuclear fallout, while the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) attempted to put restrictions on the types of activities on the transference of non-military nuclear technology to member countries without fear of proliferation. In 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established under the permission of the United Nations in order to help with the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology, provide international laws against its misuse. In 1996, many nations signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty which prohibits all testing of nuclear weapons, which would make a big barrier to their development by any complying country.
Other treaties have been made for nuclear weapons stockpiles between individual countries, such as the SALT I and START I treaties, which limited the numbers and types of nuclear weapons between the United States and the U.S.S.R.
Nuclear weapons have also been held-off by agreements between countries. Many nations have been declared Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, areas where nuclear weapons production and deployment are prohibited, through the use of treaties. The Treaty of Tlatelolco (1967) prohibited any production or deployment of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Treaty of Pelindaba (1964) prohibits nuclear weapons in many African countries. In 2006 a Central Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone was established amongst the former Soviet republics of Central Asia prohibiting nuclear weapons.
In 1996, the International Court of Justice, the highest court of the United Nations, made a ruling concerned with the “Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons”. The court ruled that the use of nuclear weapons would violate various articles of international law, including the Geneva Conventions, the Hague Conventions, the UN Charter, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Chemical Weapons are nothing new to the world, dating back to the Athens and Sparta war in 431-404 B.C. (Judson 65) when flaming pitch and sulfur mixtures were used to produce toxic smoke. In the fourth century B.C. the Chinese used toxic smoke to poison enemy mine workers. In the middle ages, before gun-power, the Greek’s would use a fire which was a mixture of sulfur, quicklime, resin, pitch, and saltpeter. This was then used against ships because the mixture concoction would float on the water and when it was set on fire it would suffocate the sailors in the vicinity.
Today the intent is the same but different chemicals are used. The most common chemical weapons are; Sarin, Tabun, and Mustard Gas. Sarin, whose chemical name is Isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate, and is a colorless liquid that does not give of an odor when vaporized. It is a nerve agent that attacks the nervous system when inhaled as a gas and can lead to victims having difficulty breathing, and in many cases death by suffocation. Tabun, Ethyl N, N-dimerthyl phosphoramidocyanidate, an amber colored, nearly odorless that vaporizes into a colorless that works almost the same as Sarin. Mustard Gas, 1,1-thiobis 2 chloromethane, one of the most common chemical weapon and was used a lot in the Iran-Iraq War killing 4,000 civilians. Mustard Gas causes skin burns and blisters and can damage the respiratory tract.
Biological warfare, also known as a germ warfare, biological weapons, and bioweapons, is the use of any pathogen (bacterium, virus or other disease-causing organism) as a weapon of war. Note that using nonliving toxic products, even if produced by living organisms (toxins ect.), is considered chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention (http://www.fas.org/biosecurity/resource/bioweapons.htm). Some of the most frequently used biological weapons are; anthrax, and smallpox. Anthrax, bacillus anthracic (bacteria), can start out with a fever and a red rash that develops into black lesions. After this many other symptoms follow and can be fatal without treatment. Small pox, variola major, is a virus that when the victim inhales it begins with just a rash or fever and in a third of the cases the victim will die. Theses weapons, both chemical and biological, are potentially very dangerous and can cause astronomical damage. With countries such as North Korea, Iran, and Iraq (http://www.comeclean.org.uk/articles.php?articleID=7) in possession of these types of weapons it is vital that the U.N. and other NGO’s bring disarmament so that no attacks can be made like the ones in previous years.
These forms of weapons, small arms, chemical and biological weapons, and nuclear bombs, as well as the arms trade itself, are main reasons why the government and international originations are pushing so hard to have disarmament take place. Steps have been taking with the signings of treaties but still many threats remain. It is the U.N.’s goal to continue invigorating their efforts for disarmament and non-proliferation world wide, maybe someday this dream will become a reality.

Bibliography

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Allegory Of American Pie By Don Mc Lean

Ask anyone what was the defining moment in the rock history of the 1960s was and all you will get is a one word answer: Woodstock. The three day rock festival that defined an era was only one of many music festivals of the '60s. But Woodstock has come to symbolize, "an era of peaceful, free- loving, drug- taking hippie youth, carefree before harsher realities hit..." (Layman 40). The Woodstock festival ended a century filled with many metamorphoses of rock'n'roll, from the era of pop music to the rebirth of folk music to the invention of acid rock. But some cynics say that rock'n'roll died with the death of Buddy Holly before the 60s even began. One such person is Don McLean. The poet behind the haunting epic song about the death of 'danceable' music, McLean wrote the ever popular song, "American Pie" (appendix 1). The most important song in rock'n'roll history, "American Pie", is the song about the demise of rock'n'roll after Buddy Holly's death and the heathenism of rock that resulted. Although McLean himself won't reveal any symbolism in his songs, "American Pie" is one of the most analyzed pieces of literature in modern society. Although not all of its secrets have been revealed, many "scholars" of the sixties will agree that the mystery of this song is one of the reasons it has become so successful- everyone wants to know the meanings of its allegories. Proof of "American Pie's" truth lies in the allegory of the song. Many People enjoy the song but have no idea what it means- Who is the Jester? What is the levee? When the deeper story is found, the importance of the song is unearthed. "American Pie" is not only a song, it is an epic poem about the course of rock'n'roll...

Carl Orffs Philosophies In Music Education

While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first attempts at composing. Although Orff was adamant about the secrecy of his past, Moser's Musik Lexicon says that he studied in the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. Orff then served in the military in the first world war. After the war, he held various positions in the Mannheim and Darmstadt opera houses then returned home to Munich to further study music. In 1925, and for the rest of his life, Orff was the head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich where he worked with musical beginners. This is where he developed his Music Education theories. In 1937, Orff's Carmina Burana premiered in Frankfurt, Germany. Needless to say, it was a great success. With the success of Carmina Burana, Orff orphaned all of his previous works except for Catulli Carmina and the En trata which were rewritten to be acceptable by Orff. One of Orff's most admired composers was Monteverdi. In fact, much of Orff's work was based on ancient material. Orff said: I am often asked why I nearly always select old material, fairy tales and legends for my stage works. I do not look upon them as old, but rather as valid material. The time element disappears, and only the spiritual power remains. My...

Johann Sebastian Bach Biography

Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...

Michelangelo

Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...