Funding Policies In Mental Health System

Word Count: 1792 |

Introduction:
Funding policies in the mental health system is very important when it comes to knowing, how the services being provided by the mental health systems are being paid for. A better understanding of factors that influence spending decisions for mental health services at the local or county level, mental health services on funding incomes above $1 million initiative statute in California. I am also going to discuss the mental health funding in Europe. Along with the funding for the Meadows Center and what the canter is all about and how it helps the patients that are in need.

Body:
A better understanding of factors that influence spending decisions for mental health services at the local or county level would be useful in service system development and in public policy planning. Indicators of county spending for services to persons with mental illness (dependent variables) were defined as the number of dollars budgeted by the county for mental illness and expenditures for mental illness per county population for fiscal year 1994(May 1998 American Psychiatric Association). Rural culture was defined by several county-based socioeconomic variables including the size of the population, the percentage of land classified as rural, the percentage of elderly persons (age 65 and older), the percentage of people with a college education, and the percentage of total income from farm earnings. Policy makers’ attitudes about services and funding priorities were assessed via a scheduled 15-minute phone survey of 97 of the state’s 99 county boards of supervisors in the fall of 1995(May 1998 American Psychiatric Association).

The results of analyses to determine factors associated with county funding for mental health services, the amount of money spent on services to persons with mental illness was correlated with the amount of money spent on mental illness per capita. County wealth, AMI advocacy, and characteristics related to rural culture, including population size, the proportion of rural and elderly inhabitants, the proportion of college-educated residents, and the proportion of farm income, all appeared to have a relationship with county funding for mental illness. Counties with larger populations and higher proportions of college-educated residents spent more money on mental illness, while counties with higher proportions of rural and elderly persons spent less. Counties in which a higher proportion of income was from farm earnings spent less money on mental illness. Policy makers’ attitudes were related to funding. County boards indicating that funding for mental health services should not be the responsibility of county government had lower budgets for persons with mental illness (Braddock 1992).

Counties are the primary providers of mental health care in California communities for persons who lack private coverage for such care. Both children and adults are eligible to receive such assistance. Counties provide a range of psychiatric, counseling, hospitalization, and other treatment services to patients (Mental health care, 2004). County mental health services are paid for with a mix of state, local, and federal funds. Revenues deposited in the Mental Health Services Fund would be used to create new county mental health programs and to expand some existing programs. These funds were not provided through the annual state budget act.

Although prevalence rates for the majority of psychiatric disorders vary very little across Europe, different health systems identify different level of need for mental health services, devote different levels of funding and choose different ways to deliver those (Knapp, 2005). This lack of funding is both inefficient, because of the substantial benefits that interventions would bring to Europe, given the significant burden of mental health problems, and the disproportionate impact they have on the poor. It looks at the ways in which mental health care is financed, and how available funds are distributed within countries in order to facilitate access to a range of services, often provide across a number of sectors such as social care, housing, criminal justice and education.

Mental health problems account for nearly 20% of the total burden of ill health in Europe, coming second only to cardiovascular disease (Knapp, 2005). Poor mental health has an impact on an individual’s physical health; mortality is significantly higher than in the general population. The funding for mental health in Europe is at historically low levels, promotion strategies, treatment and rehabilitation approaches that are known to be effective and cost-effective and inequitable, given that mental health problems account for at least one in five of all health problems in Europe, yet a great many people remain untreated.

Methods of financing mental health in Europe vary considerably with the level of resources available and do not differ much from those for health care in general. All countries rely largely on some form of income or sales-related taxation and/or social insurance. However, for countries in the former Soviet Union in particular, the transition to social health insurance systems has not always been effective, most of the health expenditures are out-of-pocket payments and private insurance (Knapp, 2005). The limited evidence available suggests that private expenditures on mental health is limited, owing in part to association of mental health problems with poverty, so that many individuals have to rely on state-funded services where these are available to them.

The role that is played by voluntary health insurance companies in Europe are voluntary (for-profit or not-for-profit) insurance schemes that provide minimal coverage for mental health in the European Economic Areas. One reason for this is because of the chronic nature and the high cost of mental health treatments and interventions. These treatments are covered; premiums are likely to be higher. Evidence from the US, where the private health-insurance market is most well-developed, illustrated the difficulty in achieving parity between mental and physical health insurance coverage, leading to unequal access to mental health treatment (Knapp, 2005). The importance of voluntary (private) insurance is growing in many parts of central and Eastern Europe (Knapp, 2005); the challenge will be to ensure that where countries shift towards more reliance on private insurance rather then social insurance or tax, mental health disorders are fully covered in the same ways as other conditions.

Out-of-pocket payments continue to provide a significant contribution to overall health expenditures in many European countries; where approximately one-third of costs are incurred out of pocket payments. Given the strong correlation between mental health problems, unemployment and deprivation, user charges for mental health services can be highly inequitable. These people needing these services will often be the least able to pay for the services that were provided (Knapp, 2005). The poor rate of diagnosis of mental health problems in primary care is not likely to be improved if those with mental health problems are discouraged from coming into contact because of the application of user charges. Moreover, people with mental health problems have poorer physical health than the general population; so again, inappropriate use of user charges could adversely impact upon them with the live in the country of Europe.

With going over the many ways that mental health is funded in Europe and in states in the United States and in rural areas, I want to now talk about the funding for the Meadows Psychiatric Center and also what services that they provide for their patients. The Meadows Psychiatric Center is the leading psychiatric treatment facility of Central Pennsylvania and is at the core of an integrated delivery system for the treatment of mental illness. Comprehensive services are offered to individuals of all ages with behavioral health and/or addictive disease problems. Individuals are referred into the most clinically appropriate and least restrictive level of care, which may include acute inpatient, partial hospitalization, intensive outpatient or outpatient services. These treatments are available for patients of all ages. Patients will be treated in the following treatment programs:
• Children’s Program, ages 5 through 12
• Adolescent Programs, ages 13 through 17
• Partial Hospitalization Programs for ages 5 through 17 located throughout Central Pennsylvania
• Outpatient Clinics – for Adults, Adolescents and Children
• WrapAround Services
• Inpatient adult program, with a stabilization unit for more acute adults
The funding that is provided for the Meadows Psychiatric Center can be done in many ways. There are three basic means of payment – shares; loan capital and cash. Whilst there is nothing to prevent an unlisted company from issuing shares for an acquisition, in practice sellers are not normally willing to accept such shares as there is no ready market for them. Also the buyers may not wish to have their controlling position in the company diluted. Therefore the issue of shares as payment for the acquisition of a private company is uncommon.
Loan notes – a loan by the seller or some other deferred payment is often included as an alternative to cash on a private company sale. From the buyer’s perspective it has the advantage of deferring payment without absorbing any bank credit facilities (although it might still be relevant for borrowing limits) particularly if the rate of interest is lower than the rate which would otherwise be payable on a bank loan. The terms of any loan such as the events of default and dates for repayment need to be considered carefully. Cash – this is the most commonly used consideration. Care needs to be taken that there is no breach of your borrowing limits or other covenants. With these being some of the ways that can be used for payment you can also use the payment of out-of-pocket payment as well.

Conclusion:

As in conclusion I have discussed a better understanding of factors that influence spending decisions for mental health services at the local or county level. Along with understanding these factors I also talked about the factors that Europe follows when they are being funded in the mental health system, all of these factors are important to know and understand when being able to pay for the services provided in the mental health system.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Allegory Of American Pie By Don Mc Lean

Ask anyone what was the defining moment in the rock history of the 1960s was and all you will get is a one word answer: Woodstock. The three day rock festival that defined an era was only one of many music festivals of the '60s. But Woodstock has come to symbolize, "an era of peaceful, free- loving, drug- taking hippie youth, carefree before harsher realities hit..." (Layman 40). The Woodstock festival ended a century filled with many metamorphoses of rock'n'roll, from the era of pop music to the rebirth of folk music to the invention of acid rock. But some cynics say that rock'n'roll died with the death of Buddy Holly before the 60s even began. One such person is Don McLean. The poet behind the haunting epic song about the death of 'danceable' music, McLean wrote the ever popular song, "American Pie" (appendix 1). The most important song in rock'n'roll history, "American Pie", is the song about the demise of rock'n'roll after Buddy Holly's death and the heathenism of rock that resulted. Although McLean himself won't reveal any symbolism in his songs, "American Pie" is one of the most analyzed pieces of literature in modern society. Although not all of its secrets have been revealed, many "scholars" of the sixties will agree that the mystery of this song is one of the reasons it has become so successful- everyone wants to know the meanings of its allegories. Proof of "American Pie's" truth lies in the allegory of the song. Many People enjoy the song but have no idea what it means- Who is the Jester? What is the levee? When the deeper story is found, the importance of the song is unearthed. "American Pie" is not only a song, it is an epic poem about the course of rock'n'roll...

Carl Orffs Philosophies In Music Education

While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first attempts at composing. Although Orff was adamant about the secrecy of his past, Moser's Musik Lexicon says that he studied in the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. Orff then served in the military in the first world war. After the war, he held various positions in the Mannheim and Darmstadt opera houses then returned home to Munich to further study music. In 1925, and for the rest of his life, Orff was the head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich where he worked with musical beginners. This is where he developed his Music Education theories. In 1937, Orff's Carmina Burana premiered in Frankfurt, Germany. Needless to say, it was a great success. With the success of Carmina Burana, Orff orphaned all of his previous works except for Catulli Carmina and the En trata which were rewritten to be acceptable by Orff. One of Orff's most admired composers was Monteverdi. In fact, much of Orff's work was based on ancient material. Orff said: I am often asked why I nearly always select old material, fairy tales and legends for my stage works. I do not look upon them as old, but rather as valid material. The time element disappears, and only the spiritual power remains. My...

Johann Sebastian Bach Biography

Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...

Michelangelo

Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...