Gods Disciple In Atheist World Christian Students In ZJU Campus

Word Count: 6100 |

This article mainly emphasizes on the lives of a special group of students in campus—the Christian students in Zhejiang university. How they worship their God and how they think about their non-Christian school mates. It shows that as the official attitudes towards religion have loosened in recently years , the number of Christian grows rapidly .more and more students convert to Christianity despite the Marxist theory they received in early years .it also suggests that many Christians still think that the government’s religious policies are quite rigid .

Key words
Christian, campus, atheist, influence, pressure


Official attitudes toward religion have gradually loosened in China in recent years, enabling the resurgence of popular belief. Places of worship for the five officially recognized faiths — Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism and Islam — have been restored or built anew, and public worship allowed again amid signs that the government sees limited religiosity as a useful component of its drive to build what it calls a “harmonious society”. Under such circumstances many religious beliefs have developed rapidly among which the Christian is the fastest one. There are over 16 million Christians in China now as well as over 55000 churches. Compared with Christians in the rural areas where exist the largest numbers of people who believe in God, Christians in universities is more deserved for us to pay attention to. Because university students are youths around 20 years old; nearly all of them receive Education of Marxist Theory and Education in Ideology and Politics. Influenced by the Communist Party, those students have been taught to be atheists since early ages. But some of them chose to be a Christian. This has already attracts attentions from international society, Chinese government, as well as some social researchers.

Why do some of the modern students prefer to believe in God or even to be Christians? How do they consider their belief? Do their beliefs have some influence on their daily life? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Do the advantages overweigh its disadvantages? What are the opinions of those students who do not believe in God? … Etc. We have so many questions about Christians in universities.

There are already many social researches on this topic before. Research of Contemporary University Students’ Beliefs (Zhang Zongpeng, Nankai University, 2006.3) has mainly focused on the reasons why university students want to be Christians and how can we regard this phenomenon positively and correctly, as well as problems the Government and society should pay attention to. The Investigation of Christianity situation in Beijing City (Zuo Peng, 2004.6) tells us that the spread and development of Christians in universities in Beijing has already been a unavoidable fact that certain government departments should pay attention to it and strengthen the management of religious activities and religious affairs in universities in order to lead students believing in God to follow the construction of Socialism. Also, we can get the accurate information of the fact of students’ belief from Investigation into Religious Beliefs of Current University Students——Case Study of College and University Students in Hefei, Anhui (Shao Yijiang, 2006.11). Current Psychological State of College Students’ Religious Belief and Countermeasures (Liu Rongjie, Wang Xiaobo, 2002.04) manly concentrates on the attitudes towards beliefs by college students in China, and give advices of how to make rules to let students take their religious activities in a right way and in order to lead their political belief correctly. And Analysis of Contemporary University Students Religious Belief State (Chen Lijie, Jiang Yanhua, 2005.03) summarizes the features of contemporary university student’s religious belief and analyzes its reasons as well as find outs methods to solve problems it brings about through handing out surveys and making analysis of the data from the surveys. Even the New York Times newspaper published an article Religious Surge in Once – Atheist China Surprises Leaders which mainly talked about the current state of religious belief in China and the government’s attitudes towards that.

Through those research or articles mention above, we can get simple information of Christians in universities in contemporary China. But most of those researches are made by experts or officials whose purposes and results are mainly on political aspects. We still have no ideas of what can those student Christians benefit from their beliefs, or what influences do their belief and religious activities bring to them especially to their studies as well as daily lives. Besides, we can not get the detail information about their religious activities (where? When? How? Who? How often…Etc.) And their true opinion towards those activities. That is why we decided to make social research on them. And in order to get to know the real situation around us, we chose students in Zhejiang University as our subject.

During our process of making research on those students who are Christians, we first designed a questionnaire form and handed out those papers in several studying classrooms and the library in Zi Jingang campus of Zhejiang University. This questionnaire can be divided into four parts. The first part is about some basic information including grade, majority or minority, age and gender of those students who finished the questionnaire paper, because we want to find out the relationship between religion and minority, and between religion and gender. In the second part, the questions are about some common information like whether the student is a Christian or not and what are his or her opinions towards that, etc. if the student were a Christian then he should finish the third part which mainly about the religious activities he or she took and how often did he or she took such activities and the reason of becoming a Christian. If the student were not a Christian, then he or she should finish the fourth part concerning the opinion towards beliefs as well as the current policy of beliefs in Zhejiang University and the reason why not choosing to be a Christian. Besides conducting a survey, we also made some interviews with some of those student Christians in Zhejiang University in order to truly understand what the Christians think, as well as getting to know the differences between Christians from the society and university, and contradictions they have met. These interviews bring us to a religious world that we never knew before, and most of us get to know the pious followers of God for our first time. We also met a famous American bishop, listening to his speech and receiving some basic knowledge.

The results and conclusions we get through our research are mainly concerning student Christians in Zhejiang University about the reason why they believe in God, why God attracts them, and how do they live under such an environment in a socialism nation. The most important point we get is about the advantages and disadvantages religion brings to their life and study and further development in this university. We want to get those results and information in order to know more about those students’ lives so that we may find out a better way or solution to help them and give them advices to lead them in a way which will not have some negative influence on them.


This article mainly emphasizes on Chinese Christian students in campus.

Why we choose Christianism as the symbol of religion? Why not Buddhism or other religions? Because while the Chinese youth are learning the technology, they are also interested in the culture behind the knowledge. They usually appreciate the economy and technology in Western countries, and it’s easy to approach Christianism in the process. What’s more, the Bible is a historical classic, not only for its richness in literature, but also is easy to understand. In comparison, Buddhism books are hard to understand, even for Chinese people themselves .During the development of more than 2000 years, Christianism has formed a mature and rational theory system, which is well accepted by university students. Under the influence of ‘Redeem ’and ‘Atonement’, the Christians always show their ‘love’and’giving’ .To the university students, who have witnessed the moral falling low in the society, they are delighted to meet Christianism. And the last, Christianism itself is a relatively extroverted religion, it encourages his followers to spread Evangel to everywhere in the world. So most Christians have a passion to propagandize. All above reveals why Christianism has the most disciples in China.

The reasons of modern university students’ belief in God can be generally put in to five categories according to our research.

The first is family influence Born in a Christian family; the child is likely to believe in God. The second is friend’s introduction. The others are: the need for true and pure mind, curiosity or doubt, and to seek for comfort.

University students are a small amount of population who have the chance to receive higher education in China .For their first twenty years they are cultivated with antitheism. Once they turn to the Christianism, in the aspects of religious concept, religious act, and religious organization, they must have something different with other religious groups in the world. And yes they did. The first is what we talked about before, why the majority choose Christianism. The second is motivation difference. Most university students believe in God to seek for something spiritual, not for the need of reality. This makes a huge contrast with the Christianism followers in society, who generally devote themselves to God because of the pain and suffering in life. To university students, it is more about the pursuit of life value and the meaning of life. In a word, they carry the questions about the thought of human life to the church, and what the priest offers, is the ‘reasonable’ answer they are looking for. This makes them turn to’ The One’ rather than antitheism. But twenty years’ education remains something solid in their mind, which usually stands against Christianism. The longer he believes in God, the fiercer this battle in his mind will become. Thus, their belief is more immanent, deeper, and harder to change by the others. The third is the organization. Modern university students seldom come to official religious organization, they usually lead a religious life in the form of ‘fellowship’, according to our research .Though every follower believes the only One, theory usually feel unnecessary to come to official systematic organization. They consider it is not convenient to communicate .And the Fellowship is friendlier; it is usually conducted by the teacher or just students of the same age. They could sing carols, pray to God, read Bible and communicate with each others about questions ranged from belief to life. What’s more, Fellowship can hold some activities which will never happen in official systematic organization, such as hike, picnic, etc. Every follower can directly take part into these, so the love can be fully expressed. All of these activities create a friendly religious atmosphere and make Fellowship more natural .On the other hand, many Chinese official organizations are controlled by the government ,and they are rejected by the Christians ,even not considered as the speaker of the God. The last aspect is the influence of Christianism. University students not only convert religious ideas to their own ideas, but also change the attitudes towards life and society. Once they believe in God, they have an ultimate goal—their souls get redeemed. And most of them will conduct the creeds, besides, their pray and communication with other fellows help them get the spiritual entertainment at to large degree. Every moment, they tell themselves to be a good person .But we also have to say the conservative and negative part of religion brings lot problems to university students. Some of them form fatalism, they are indifferent about the life, and label things simply as good or bad.

We used a variety of qualitative methods and quantitative methods including questionnaire, interviews and taking part in to the objects’ activities to feel what they feel, and feel as they feel.

At first, we recon where shall we start the research. The Zhejiang University is a complexes university with students from all walks of lives. There are minorities, foreigners. And the students cover the population from North China to South China, from the east to the west. After analyzing these elements, we choose Zhejiang University to conduct the research. Then we scheduled several visits to some churches, in order to generally understand how the Christians think and behave, what is a preach like. We also meet a famous American bishop, listening to his speech about some basic knowledge. And we realized a very important tool to make people come to church of their own accords—The God. The Bible defines every man is born guilty, everyone has his own sins. If they come to church and pray to God, God will set him free, and the person will be free indeed. The details will be discussed later in the main part.

Then we designed the questionnaire. The questionnaire mainly focuses on people who don’t believe in God, and have been cultivated in Darwin’s theory of revolution since their childhoods, namely the majority. We want to know what Christianism means to them, and how they think about the Christians and the status quo of religion education in the campus. We reaped much valuable data.
Meanwhile, we conducted many interviews, in order to truly understand what the Christians think, the differences between Christians from the society and university, the contradictions they have met. These interviews bring us to a religious world that we never knew before, and most of us get to know the pious followers of God for our first time.
After having collected the data and finished the interviews, we went on to analyze what we got.


In order to know how much pressure the Christians in Zhejiang University are under from public, we made a questionnaire to find out students’ attitude towards the Christian students. We decided to keep the survey anonymous in the hope of encouraging candid responses to some sensitive questions. And most of our questions are closed- ended, while only a few of them are open- ended so that we may get some more accurate answers.

100 students on random in different classes were surveyed with their permission. The ethnic distribution of our sample was 93 percent Hans, 2 percent Mongolians, 2 percent Uighur and 3 percent other nationalities. The gender distribution was 53 percent boys and 47 percent girls. And the course distribution was 35 percent arts major, 22 percent science major, 40 percent engineering major and 3 percent other major. The volunteer sample was similar to the ethnic and course distribution of the university.

In general, the questionnaire includes three topics. Firstly, we want to know how much students in Zhejiang University believe in Christianity. That’s the foundation of our research. Secondly, we hope to know how much the students know about Christian religion. The last but not the least, we try to investigate not Christian students’ attitude to the students with religious belief. That’s the main purpose of the questionnaire. It can tell us whether and how much the Christian students in the university have pressure form their schoolmates.

The first question indicated that only 7 percent of the volunteers believed in Christianity. But when asked whether they had acquaintances believing in it, 46 percent of them gave an affirmative answer. And 65 percent of them were propagandized about Christian in the university once or more. That is to say, though most of students don’t believe in Christianity, we still have much contact with religion, especially with Christianity.

To solve the second question we want to know, we tried to find whether students joined Christian activities before and whether they knew university’s policy on the Christian issue. The results showed that 83 percent students never attended any Christian activities and 38 percent of them had no idea of the policy on religion in the university. That indicated most of the students in university have a little contact with real religious activities and they paid little attention to it.

At last, we want to know students’ attitude to Christianity and Christians. When asked whether they support Christians’ religious belief, 66 percent of them gave affirmative answer and considered it as freedom of worship. On the contrast, only 15 percent students supported their preaching, while 21 percent strongly disliked this action. In order words, if the Christians don’t bother others’ lives, people won’t show any dislike to them. Furthermore, some of the people will support their belief.

From Q11 “in your opinion, why Christianity can attract some student to be its believer”, we got almost an average answer—28 percent guessed that was because of family tradition. 32 percent thought Christian religion met students’ spiritual needs. 32 percent considered it as a new thing which was attractive to youngsters, while 34 percent of them thought the Chinese Christians were chasing for a culture which was unfamiliar to them. Though this question, we could approximately know many students acknowledged religion’s advantages. As a matter of fact, though we don’t understand Christianity very well, it can still meet some of our needs much or less.

Q12 focused on the reasons why they didn’t believe in Christianity. 53 percent of the volunteers claimed that they were atheists and 20 percent of them thought there were too many restrictions for the Christians. They didn’t want to lose their freedom. As young people, especially in China, a nation without religious belief, these reasons were all very reasonable.

From the open-ended questions, some people showed their like to the Christian students. Although they didn’t believe in Christianity, yet they believed the true meaning of Christianity was “love” and “forgiveness”. Here are a part of the answers to Q11.
And to the question “what do you think about the Christian students in Zhejiang University” (Q7), some students also showed their respect to the Christians. They said,” the followers of Christianity are very self-disciplined. They study hard and don’t play much PC games. And some of them often do some commonweal works, such as cleaning streets, teaching orphans and donating blood.”

On contrast, some Christian behaviors have some negative effects. For example, some students just believe in Christianity on the surface. They don’t understand the true meaning of the religion. Their difference between behaviors and belief arouse others’ prejudice to them. And in the progress of preaching, some Christians are too warm-hearted. When asked Q7, some students answered:


From the date above, we can have a clear idea of students’ attitude to the students believing in Christianity.

(1) As well- educated atheists living in a country without real religious belief, most of the students in Zhejiang University don’t believe in Christianity. (Only 7% really believe the existence of Jesus.)

(2) Almost everyone had contact with Christians before. (Preaching or having Christian friends)

(3) Students don’t show any dislike to the Christianity or Christians if they don’t bother others’ lives. Nevertheless, most students acknowledge religion’s help to people’s soul.


Privacy statement
We have eliminated some parts of our research paper due to the privacy problem. So please be tolerant at the potential inconsistent of our research paper.

Interview design
The interview part is regarded as the most important way of collecting data whereas the questionnaire is designed to be a supplement.

The following are the questions we concerned during the interview design
â‘´ The privacy of the interviewee
How to protect the privacy of the interviewees while collect the useful data we need is the problem bothered us for quite a long time. In the end, we made a “frank and open” policy. During our social research, every interviewee has his right to browse our research result and can have the sensitive or offending part eliminated .besides if the interviewee is not content with the time, place and the way of interview, they can give their suggestion.

⑵ How to ensure the reliability of the data
In order to ensure that every data we collect is reliable and supportable, we chose our interviewee list carefully. Because of the sensitivity of our research topic, it is too idealistic to expect to gather a lot of reliable data from a totally unfamiliar interviewee in 40 to 50 minutes. To solve this problem we made a draft interviewee list 2 weeks before the interview. In the following two weeks, we step by step introduce our research purpose and idea to them. We also took part in two religious activities together with them .we did not start the interview until our mutual confidence was built .by the way, all the interviewees we selected are friends of our friends.

⑶How to minimize the uneasiness in the interview
Despite the preparation we have made, how to minimize the uneasiness in the interview is still haunted us. After a few discussions we reached to an agreement that if the interview is taken in a place with friendly atmosphere like café, bread shop, milk tea house, the uneasiness can be reduced to a tolerable scale. And the interview should be arranged in the afternoon when their schedules are vacant .if possible; we will have the interviewee accompanied by our mutual friends. The fact proves that all these means work.

Data we expect to gather
â‘´ How the Christian student looks like ?
Religion influence every aspect of their lives .through our previous activities ,we did find some distinction on their facial expression and personality .we hope to get more accurate data through face to face observation

⑵ The regular religious activities on week days
On weekend, Christian student go to church, but on week days they also have group activities .we need to have further understanding about the content, time, place of these group activities, and the number of students in the group

⑶ Their attitude towards China and our university’s religious policies .How these policies affect their live?
Because of the sensitivity of this question, we find it quite hard to ask them directly .if possible, we may sniff out the answer from the conversation

â‘· Their schoolmates’ attitude toward them , will they preach to other people ?

The final interview outline is as follow
1 The basic information about the interviewee (including his birth place .the religious atmosphere in his hometown, family background appearance, personality, how long has he been a Christian)

2 Regular Religious activities, including their contents and purposes (go to church, preaching, singing religious song) number of participants

3 How they arrange their schedules? What do they think of the irreconcilable contradiction between science and religion?

4 Will they let other people know their religious belief? will they wear religious ornaments。 Will they pray in the public or only in their dormitory .will they preach to other students?

5 The attitude of non-Christian toward them. In favor of, in indifferent (neutral) or annoyed what will they do if their school mates blaspheme the gods

6 Pressure they feel from outside .how China and our university’s religious policies affect them

7 The number of Christian in ZJU, and their connection with other religious group.

Data collected
â‘´ family Fellowship or going to church

When we were still preparing for the interview, we went to a preach party at Chongyi church in Hangzhou .there were more than 3000 people at that time, most of them were women, the elder and people that were less-educated .From the interview we found that many Christian students prefer family fellowship to going to church .
The reasons are as follow

â‘  convenience
Our campus is located in the suburb and it will take at least 40 minutes to the nearest church .as college students with heavy workload, they cannot spare much time except weekend. Family fellowship on the other hand is quite different. Several brethren having a dinner in the canteen is the simplest form of family fellowship. The place and time of the family fellowship activities are to their discretion.

â‘¡education background
There is an old saying :”A bird of a feather flocks together .” in the church ,most of the people are women, the elder and people that are less-educated .their understanding about God is different from that of those Christian receiving higher education . Christian students tend to meet those having the same education background. And family fellowship is just the right place.

â‘¢A more friendly atmosphere

Family fellowship can create a friendlier atmosphere .with few participants; every one has a chance to express his feeling and understanding. They can exchange their idea and talk on a wide range.
A Christian told me that he has taken an active part in the family fellowship since an early age and I have got used to be.

⑵Science or God

There have also been many irreconcilable contradictions between science and theology. Evolution, the Copernican theory threaten the social status of theology .as future elites in society, college students receive the most advanced science education. What do they think of the irreconcilable contradiction between science and religion? How can they solve this problem?

Interviewee A, a boy major in engineering

To some extend, science is not always opposite to theology. Take the cosmic explosion theory as an example. Scientist found that the very beginning of the universe may be a knot, a information, a sentence .and this sentence is just God’s sentence.
Interviewee B, a girl major in liberal art
I believe there may be some change on our appearance after God first created Adam and Eva. But I can’t accept the theory that the inferior monkey is human’s ancestor.
Interviewee C, a boy major in Science
When I was in middle school, I was quite puzzled with the contradiction between science and what I learned from the Holy Bible. As age and knowledge grow, I gradually find that science can be used to explain the text in Bible.

We can see that most Christian student choose to believe what they learn from the Bible, not science. They are also trying to reconcile the problem by using science to explain theology.

But in the test, all of them adopt a realistic attitude .they write what science says.
Interviewee C says: though quite reluctant, I still have to write according to the textbook. I think God will forgive me if he knows the exam score is very important to me.

⑶Special code of conduct

During the interview, one of the Christian student told me that: “the code of conduct that they are following is far more rigid than that of law and moral.

Most of the college Christians that we met have excellent academic achievement, none of them waste time on playing computer games ,excessive social activities .these have direct connection with the instruction in the bible “do not waste your time ,do not degenerate .”

â‘· Interrelationship between Christian and Non-Christian students

Most non-Christian students speak highly of their Christian schoolmates. Infused with the instruction of “treat other people in the way you treat yourself”, most Christian student are thought to be helpful, amiable and not concerned with personal gains or losses. During the interview, we were deeply impressed by their politeness tranquility and gentle disposition. They do not have the arrogance, pride and rashness of contemporary students.
When talking about the question of “other students’ attitudes toward their believes”
Interviewee B suggests : “they are either do not believe in God ,but have some interest ,or are indifferent ,and think that is the freedom of religious belief .”

The result is consistent with the what we found in the questionnaire .most people are quite tolerant toward their Christian school mates .more than 99% of the students think that it is their freedom of religious belief .

⑸ Attitude toward China and university’s religious policies

In the questionnaire , there are 26 believe that our religious policies are fairly open , 32 think that is OK, only 4 people show that there is no freedom at all .38students wrote that they didn’t know .

In contrast, most of the Christian students think that the religious policies are rather rigid.

Interviewee A, all of our group activities are taken place off campus, because school forbids any form of religious activities on campus. As long as their policies do not collide with God’s instruction, they are acceptable .if there is contradiction, we will do as what Lord ask us to do.

Interviewee C suggested: “some of the policies are quite unreasonable .we will try to obey them, but if the conflict is irreconcilable, we will submit to the instruction of God.”

⑹Side effect
As idealism, the negative and conservative elements of Christianity also give Christian students some side effects. For example some people believe in fatalism and become sympathetic about secular world.


In this article, we tried our best to contribute the limited knowledge about the Christians in Zhejiang University, and we also found much information about the background of the Christians in our university and the effects and influences of religion belief to their college lives.

Since 20th century, more and more college students believing religions has become a very noticing phenomenon. As we all know that, most of Chinese universities and colleges are the educational bases of the Weltanschauung of Marxism, how the students think about the Christians in college campus, and what the affections of Christianity to those Christians? In order to solve these questions, we built this social research.

We mainly use three methods to collect the data.
The first one is interview. All the interviewers were picked out from the Christians of Zhejiang University, we interviewed 3 persons, two boys and one girl, each of them has different major, one studies engineering, one studies liberal art and the other studies science. The second method is attending to the Christian activities, by this method, we got more sensible understanding about the group of people. The third method is making questionnaires to do the survey, 100 students on random in different classes, in different majors, were surveyed with their permission, so we can find out the students’ attitude towards the Christian students.

However, the study neither aim to make wider claims that all Christians in Chinese universities and colleges, nor appeal more students to believe Christianity, it just offers more evidence of how the religion belief effect the Christians students in Zhejiang University.

Before we do the social research, we had read and analysis a lot of information and articles about college Christian students. In the article 《大学生信教原因分析及其启示, 2007》, we found that the article is mainly study the reasons why the college students believe religions, and in another article 《信教大学生的思想倾向及成因分析》,2007. It mainly shows the thinking tendency of college Christian students. Thus in summary of that information, we need to explore exactly what the affections of Christianity to college students.

After doing the whole research, we have got many significant information about the Christians in Zhejiang University. They are noted below.

We are very close to Christianity in university.

In Zhejiang University, a normal percentage of students believe in Christianity (about 7 percent of students believed in it, in a national research, the number is 11 present), and almost a half of students have acquaintances believing in Christianity. (The number was 46 percent in our research). Nearly 2/3 students were propagandized about Christianity in the university at least once or more. So we can see that most of students don’t believe in Christianity, we still have much contact with religion, especially with Christianity.

The affections of religion to those Christian students.
After the interviews of those three Christian students, we had known that the religion influences many aspects of their lives.

How are their behaviors and personalities?
They look very ordinary from the view of facial. But they are all very polite, peaceful, and do not have the arrogance, pride and rashness of contemporary students. Many non-Christian students speak highly of their Christian schoolmates. Infused with the instruction of “treat other people in the way you treat yourself”, most Christian student are thought to be helpful, amiable and not concerned with personal gains or losses. They are very self-discipline. They accept the law of the country, but they have more rigid and higher moral level than the law. And we got to know that most of Christian students work very hard, they have excellent academic achievement, few of them waste time on playing computer games, excessive social activities. However, the negative and conservative elements of Christianity also give Christian students some side effects, they believe in fatalism and have less enterprise.

In Zhejiang University, most of students believe in science. Why the Christian students have excellent academic achievement when they believe in Christianity? In fact, they are very irreconcilable between science and theology. But we got to know that finally Christian student choose to believe what they learn from the Bible, not science. They are also trying to reconcile the problem by using science to explain theology. But when they have a exam, they will adopt a realistic attitude. Maybe it will become a problem of understanding the science, but Christianity is their belief, we can not intervene them.

Our university forbids any form of religious activities on campus. In the questionnaire, there are 26 believe that our religious policies are fairly open , 32 think that is OK, only 4 people show that there is no freedom at all. But the Christian should have their religious activities. Many of them began to believe in Christianity when they were in a very young age, because of their families. They showed strict believe in Christianity in many aspects. In every Thursday evening and Sunday evening, they attend to Christian activities, comparing with going to church, they prefer family fellowship because of convenience, education background and it has a more friendly atmosphere.

Research of Contemporary University Students’ Beliefs (Zhang Zongpeng, Nankai University, 2006.3)

The Investigation of Christianity situation in Beijing City (Zuo Peng, 2004.6)

Religious Beliefs of Current University Students——Case Study of College and University Students in Hefei, Anhui (Shao Yijiang, 2006.11)

Current Psychological State of College Students’ Religious Belief and Countermeasures (Liu Rongjie, Wang Xiaobo, 2002.04)

Analysis of Contemporary University Students Religious Belief State (Chen Lijie, Jiang Yanhua, 2005.03)

Religious Surge in Once – Atheist China Surprises Leaders

《大学生信教原因分析及其启示》, 2007


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Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...


Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...