History Of Roman Government

Word Count: 4466 |

The Romans have had almost every type of government there is.
They’ve had a kingdom, a republic, a dictatorship, and an empire.
Their democracy would be the basis for most modern democracies. The
people have always been involved with and loved their government, no
matter what kind it was. They loved being involved in the government,
and making decisions concerning everyone. In general, the Romans were
very power-hungry. This might be explained by the myth that they are
descended from Romulus, who’s father was Mars, the god of war. Their
government loving tendencies have caused many, many civil wars. After
any type of government, the change has been made with a civil war.
There have also been many civil wars between rulers. But it all boils
down to wanting to be involved in government.

When the Greeks finally entered Troy after ten long years of
siege, a man named Aeneas escaped the city with his father, Anchises,
and his son, Ascanius. They went to Mt. Ida, where they were to meet
Aeneas’ wife, Creusa, but she never showed up. Saddened, Aeneas
acquired a boat and sailed around the Mediterranean. He bounced around
from Asia Minor to Greece to Crete looking for a place to found a new
Troy, but he couldn’t find a satisfactory place. As told by Homer in
the Aeneid, Aeneas was cared for by the gods. Venus, in particular,
was very worried about him. She asked Jupiter, king of the gods about
him, and he said this:

“Since you are so consumed with anxiety for Aeneas,
I shall turn forward far
The hidden pages of fate and speak of the future.
He shall conduct a great campaign for you
And conquer all Italy and its haughty peoples.
He shall impose laws on his own people
And build walled cities for them; the third summer
Shall see him rule in Latium, the third winter
Of warfare see the Rutulians [an Italian tribe] subdued.
But his son Ascanius…

It is he who shall consolidate your power-
For thirty years with all their turning months;
Then shall he move his capital from Lavinium
To Alba Longa, which he shall fortify
To the uttermost; and there a line of kings…
Shall reign and reign till Ilia [Rhea Silvia], a priestess
Of royal blood, bear twins begotten by Mars;
And one of these, Romulus, fostered by a she-wolf,
And joyfully wearing her tawny hide, shall rule
And found a city for Mars, a new city,
And call his people Romans, after his name.
For them I see no measure nor date, I grant them
Dominion without end. Yes, even Juno…

Even she will mend her ways and vie with me
In cherishing the Romans, the master-race,
The wearers of the Toga. So it is willed.”(Nardo 13)

Finally, he wound up at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy.
He went inland up the river, which was a miracle in itself, because
the river is very swift. He found Latium, ruled by King Latinus, and
married his daughter, Lavinia. With King Latinus’ permission, Aeneas
and Lavinia founded a city called Lavinium, where they ruled side by
side for many years. When Aeneas died, his son Ascanius took over.
Ascanius founded a new city, which he called Alba Longa, and made it
his capital.

Now we advance four centuries. The king of Alba Longa is
Numitor. He had a jealous brother named Amulius, who seized the throne
and drove out Numitor. To prevent Numitor’s daughter, Rhea Silvia,
from having children who could claim the throne, Amulius made her a
celibate priestess. While she was a priestess, Mars, the god of war,
came and visited her and she had twin boys named Remus and Romulus
(Burrell 7). When Amulius found out about the twins, he was furious.
He ordered Rhea imprisoned and the boys drowned on the Tiber. The
slave who was ordered to drown them felt pity for them, and instead
sent them down the river in a basket. When they landed, a she-wolf
found them and nursed them because her cubs had just been killed and
she was still fertile. Romulus and Remus were found by a shepherd
named Faustulus, who took them home to his wife to raise them. As they
grew up, being sons of Mars, they turned out to be very athletic and
natural leaders, especially of the local boys. When the boys grew up,
they heard the story of Numitor and Amulius. With their local friends,
they attacked Alba Longa, killed Amulius, restored their grandfather
to the throne, and freed their mother.

After restoring Numitor to the throne, the boys decided to
found a city on one of the seven hills near where their basket was
found by the wolf. This was a natural spot for a city. Accounts Livy,

“Not without good reason did gods and men choose this spot as the site
of a city, with its bracing hills, its [spacious] river by means of
which the produce of inland countries may be brought down and inland
supplies obtained; a sea near enough for all useful purposes, but not
so near as to be exposed to danger from foreign fleets; a district in
the very center of Italy, in a word, a position singularly adapted by
a nature for the growth of a city.” (Nardo, 12)

The two boys couldn’t decide between themselves which hill to start
on, so they decided that whoever saw a vulture first could pick. Remus
saw the first vulture and five others, and Romulus saw twelve. Remus
had rightfully won, but Romulus claimed he should pick since he saw
more vultures. He borrowed a plow and team, and plowed a furrow around
the Palatine hill. He told his brother that was where the city would
be, and if Remus crossed the line, he would be killed. Contemptuous
Remus immediately crossed the line, and Romulus killed him. Romulus
later said he regretted killing his brother, but life goes on. He
built his city on the Palatine Hill, and called it Rome.

When Romulus founded Rome in 753 BC, he made himself the king.
Being a brand new city, it had very few people. Romulus built up the
population by allowing anybody who wanted to live there, including
criminals who flocked to the city. This caused a shortage of women. To
get some, the Romans hosted athletic games and invited their
neighbors, the Sabines. While they were at the games, some of the
Romans sneaked off and stole the Sabine women (Burrell 14-15).
Realizing what had happened, the Sabines prepared their army.
Expecting this, the Romans were ready and the two forces lined up
preparing to fight. Surprisingly, some of the women ran into the
no-man’s-land in between the armies. This is what their leader said:

“We were just daughters a short while ago, now we are both wives and
daughters. We did not choose our husbands – they chose us. We want
this fighting to stop. If it goes ahead, many will be slain. When our
fathers are dead, we shall be orphans, but if our husbands die, we
shall be widows. We lose either way.” (Burrell, 14-15)

Surprisingly, the two armies listened and put down their weapons.

Since anyone was allowed to reside, Rome had great diversity
in its people. There were three main ethnic groups: the Romans, who
were first generation, the Sabines, and the Latins, who Romulus is
descended from. The Sabines lived in the mountains east of the Tiber
and north of the Latins. Later on, another group of people called the
Etruscans started moving in. They were unique in that their language
had no relation to any other known language, the only one like that.

Romulus established a government with a king, who was
imperium, “Over all persons and in all causes supreme” (Adcock 6).
Romulus chose one hundred fathers to form the Senate. These people and
their descendants are known as Patricians, from the Latin word pater,
meaning father. He divided the people into three tribes, mentioned
above, and each tribe was divided into smaller curiae. The succession
of kings wasn’t hereditary. The previous king appointed someone, and
that person had to show the good will of heaven. Once king he had to
keep the pax deorum, Latin for peace of the gods. Romulus created an
army that was to have three thousand infantry and three hundred
horsemen, one-third from each tribe. This was a national guard, with
people keeping their day jobs.

When Romulus died in 717 BC, the two main tribes, the Romans
and the Sabines, couldn’t decide how to pick a king. Finally it was
decided that the Romans would pick a Sabine king. They picked Numa
Pompilius. This is what Plutarch had to say about him:

“He banished all luxury and softness from his own home, and… in
private he devoted himself not to amusement… but to the worship of
the immortal gods.” (Nardo 19)

One of Pompilius’ notable achievements was rearranging the calendar so
it had twelve months instead of ten.

The third king, Tullus Hostilius, was a war monger. He
believed his subjects would grow soft if they weren’t engaged in a
war. Conquering neighboring people, including Alba Longa, he extended
Rome’s rule out to twelve miles. Supposedly the gods got angry with
him and killed him with a lightning bolt (Burrell, 12).

The fourth king, Ancus Martius, was a Sabine. He extended
Rome’s boundary to the sea and built the Pons Sublicus, the first
bridge across the Tiber. He also captured the Janiculum hill on the
far bank.

The fifth king, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, was the first
Etruscan king. He got the throne when he persuaded Martius to send his
sons away. He was an architect king. He built the capitol temple,
drained the marsh between the Paletine and Aventine Hills, built the
Cloaca Maxima, or great sewer, and designed the Circus Maximus.

The sixth king was Servius Tullius, another Etruscan. He
divided the citizens into five social classes, from richest to
poorest. All but the poorest had to provide soldiers.

The seventh, and final, king was Tarquinius Superbus. He was a
bad king. He got the throne by marrying Tullius’ daughter, Tullia. He
then pushed Tullius down a flight of stairs. He sent men to finish him
off, but Tullia ran over her father with a cisium, Latin for a light,
two-wheeled carriage. As king, he paid absolutely no attention to what
the people wanted. According to Asimov, when he was off at war with
the Volscians, the Senate voted to exile him, and he wasn’t let back
into the city. After his reign, the people vowed never to have a king
again, and a law was made where anybody who even talked about having a
king back was executed. A senator named Brutus said,

“I swear, and you, o gods, I call to witness that I will drive
[away]… Tarquinius Superbus, together with his wicked wife and his
whole family, with fire and sword and every means in my power, and I
will not [allow] them or anyone else to reign in Rome.”
(Nardo 25)

Republic is English for the Latin Res Publica, meaning the public
thing. A republic is “a country governed by the elected
representatives of the people” (Encarta “Republic”). Instead of a
president or king, the Republic has two praetors, later known as
consuls, who were elected annually. The one exception was emergency
dictators, who served for six months and six months only. The Senators
served for life. The object of the Republic was to give the people a
voice in the government, and to keep just one person from having all
the power. Noting the Greek government, the Romans created the
Centuriate Assembly of citizens. This was an assembly where citizens
discussed and voted on important issues. Many of the members were
Patricians, but there were a few Plebs, or commoners too poor to own
land. Only free Roman adult men who owned weapons were citizens. Not
long after the Republic was formed, the Patricians closed off
immigration of new patriarchal families.

In the early years of the Republic, the Patricians often made
laws unfair to the Plebs. Only Patricians could become consul, the
senate was almost all Patricians, and the Patricians controlled the
Plebs in the Assembly by giving the Plebs financial aid, who in turn
voted the way they were told. Public Officials weren’t paid, so only
wealthy people could afford to serve on a regular basis. One time, the
Plebs refused to serve in the army until they got their way. As Livy

“The Patricians dreaded the Plebians [who were striking]…. How long
could it be supposed that the multitude which had seceded would remain
inactive? And what would be the consequence if in the meantime a
foreign war should break out? No glimpse of hope could they see left
except in concord between the citizens, which must be re-established
in the state on any terms.” (Nardo 28)

In 494 BC, the Patricians gave up and allowed the striking Plebs their
own council, called the Popular Assembly, which excluded Patricians.
This assembly couldn’t make laws, but they elected ten tribunes each
year who had the power of veto. The Patricians pronounced the validity
of decisions made by the assembly. As the Republic grew older, it
became more complicated. The Assembly had to elect officials to help.
They elected eight praetors, or court judges, four aediles, who
managed public streets and buildings, two censores, who took censuses,
admitted new senators and collected taxes, and twenty five quaestores,
or financial officers. In 450 BC, the Plebs demanded that the laws of
Rome be written down so that the praetors couldn’t twist the law in
their favor. They were written down on the Twelve Tables. An example
of a law from the Twelve Tables was,

“If plaintiff summons defendant to court, he shall go. If he does not
go, plaintiff shall call witness [to this]. Then only shall he take
the defendant [to court] by force.” (Nardo 28-29)

The Tribunes of the Plebs protected the Plebs from unjustness, and the
Plebs protected them by threatening to strike. As time went on,
Patrician control over Plebians gradually decreased, until in 366 BC,
the Plebs were allowed to become consul. Soon it became a custom to
elect one Pleb and one Patrician (Nardo 28). In 287 BC, the Popular
Assembly gained the right to make laws.

Rome was ever expanding. In 496 BC, Rome conquered Latium. In
449 BC, the Sabines fell, and in 396 BC, the Etruscans. Instead of
trying to oppress conquered tribes and peoples, Rome absorbed them,
integrating them into their culture. This made them much easier to
control, because they felt like they belonged to Rome. This is what
Cicero had to say about it:

“Every citizen of a corporate town [one annexed by Rome] has, I take
it, two fatherlands, that of which he is a native, and that of which
he is a citizen. I will never deny my allegiance to my native town,
only I will never forget that Rome is my greater fatherland, and that
my native town is but a portion of Rome.” (Nardo 31)

The Senators of Rome also felt great loyalty towards the city. In 390
BC, raiders from Gaul invaded the city. Some of the Senators stayed in
the city. Livy tells what happened:

“[The Senators sat]…without fear or concern…. The Gauls, for a
great while, stood wondering at the strangeness of the sight, not
daring to approach of touch them, taking them for an assembly of
superior beings. But then one [Gaul], bolder than the rest, drew near
to one elderly senator, and… gently stroked [the Senator’s] chin and
touched his long beard; the Senator with his staff struck him a severe
blow on the head; upon which the barbarian drew his sword and slew
him. This was the introduction to the slaughter.” (Nardo 32)

The Romans didn’t look kindly upon failures. After the consul Varro
lost fifty thousand soldiers in battle with Hannibal’s army, he was
ejected from office. According to Nardo, the only reason he wasn’t
executed was that he fought along side the army, and didn’t desert

In the Punic wars against Carthage, Rome had to develop naval
technology. After Carthage was defeated, Roman merchants adopted ships
to do their trading, making them more and more wealthy. Eventually,
these wealthy merchants formed a new class, called the ‘equestrian
order’. This new class competed with the patricians for power in the
government. The citizens began splitting into two parties. The
Imperialists, led by General Scipio Africanus, wanted to continue
expanding eastward. The Conservatives, led by Senator Cato the Elder,
wanted to settle down and stop expanding. As time went on, the
Imperialists increasingly prevailed. By the second century BC, the
government became more and more imperialistic, to the point that they
would attack anything with the smallest excuse. In 192 BC, the
Seleucid king Antiochus III took over a few freed Greek cities. Rome
invaded, conquered everything, and drove Antiochus III to Asia Minor.
The Roman army chased him, and conquered the territories he had in
Asia Minor.

Gaius Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 BC to a
prestigious Roman family. His uncle was Gaius Marius, the consul and
leader of the agrarian reform movement. In 82 BC, Lucius Cornelius
Sulla attacked the city and made himself dictator. Because Sulla was
an enemy of Marius, he ordered Caesar to divorce his wife, Cornelia.
Caesar refused, and fled the city until Sulla resigned in 78 BC.
Caesar started his reign in a triumvirate, with himself, Pompey the
Great, and Marcus Licinius Crassus. According to Nardo, this was just
a dictatorship of three. They ruled the Republic with terror, using
the army and their henchmen as muscle.(77-78) The only person who
continually voiced his opposition to the triumvirate was the famous
orator, Cicero. The triumvirate chased him into hiding. In 58 BC,
Caesar et al.’s term ended, but they kept power. Caesar boosted his
popularity by conquering Gaul and Britain. In 53 BC, Crassus died in
battle in Asia, leaving a triumvirate of two. While Caesar was away in
Britain, the senators tried to pit him against Pompey by naming Caesar
a public enemy and Pompey protector of the state. The senators were
hoping that the two would get rid of each other. Caesar was ordered to
disband his army, but he instead marched on Rome. He was just bringing
his soldiers home, but it was taken as an invasion (Nardo 83-84). In
48 BC, Caesar crossed to Greece, where Pompey had escaped to. Pompey
escaped to Egypt, where he sought shelter with King Ptolemy XIII.
Ptolemy’s advisors warned him against the wrath of Caesar, so he
killed Pompey and sent Caesar his head. In 46 BC, Caesar was named the
ten year dictator of the state. He promptly renamed himself dictator
for life. On March 15, 44 BC, a group of senators who decided that
Caesar was a danger to the Republic. Led by Brutus and Cassius, they
attacked Caesar in the senate chambers. Ironically, his body fell at
the feet of the statue of Pompey, after suffering twenty three knife
wounds. Immediately after Caesar’s death, the senate outlawed the

After Caesar’s death, his adopted grandson, Octavian, formed
the second triumvirate with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Antony ruled the east, Octavian the west and Italy, and Lepidus ruled
Africa. The second triumvirate was constituted by an act of state to
reconstitute the state. They were given five years, but this was later
extended. The three crushed all of their opponents, including Brutus,
Cassius, and Cicero. Battling against Sextus Pompeius, Octavian
summoned Lepidus to Italy to help him. Upon arriving, Lepidus tried to
seize Sicily, and was subsequently kicked out of the triumvirate.

Mark Antony fell in love with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt, who
was rumored to be a former lover of Caesar. Together they ruled the
eastern Empire for many years. With the growing support of the Roman
people, Octavian declared war on Antony, to secure power for himself.
The two forces, Octavian’s navy commanded by Marcus Agrippa, and
Antony and Cleopatra’s navy, met at the battle of Actium on September
2, 31 BC. Agrippa, a very capable general and a good friend of
Octavian, commanded 260 light ships, while Antony commanded 220 heavy
ships (Encarta “Actium”). The battle raged on for a very long time,
and was beginning to look like a stalemate, when the Egyptian fleet
withdrew. Agrippa’s fleet crushed the remnants of Antony’s fleet, who
survived and escaped back to Egypt with Cleopatra. Antony received a
false rumor and killed himself by falling on his sword. Upon hearing
of his suicide, Cleopatra killed herself with an asp, which was a
symbol of the eye of Ra, the Egyptian sun god (Gibson). After the war
was over, Octavian closed the Roman temple to Janus, the Roman god of
beginnings of wars. This showed that the world was at peace.

In 28 BC, Octavian and Agrippa became consuls. After one year,
they turned the state over to “the free decision of the Senate and
People of Rome” (Adcock 74). The Senate and people of Rome gave
Octavian ten years of complete control. Octavian named himself the
princeps, which is Latin for emperor. He ran the Empire as a monarchy,
although it was disguised as a Republic. They still had a senate, but
senators only made it into office with Octavian’s approval. Those
citizens who weren’t fooled kept quiet, because Octavian kept things
peaceful and governed fairly. Octavian ended the Roman tradition of
conquest, cutting the army from seventy five to twenty eight legions.
In 23 BC, Octavian gave up the consulate, but the senate forced him
to keep power over the provinces. In effect, he ran the Empire from
the background, while others were elected consul. These consuls had
power, but always did what Octavian said. On his death bed, Octavian
was advised to forgive his enemies. He responded with, “Yes father,
but how can I? I have [killed] them all” (Adcock 75). Octavian was
almost eighty when he died in 14 AD.

After Octavian came the Emperor Tiberius. His reign was
non-eventful, and he retired after plots against him were turned up.
After Tiberius came Gaius, who was better known as Caligula. During
his reign, Caligula went crazy. According to Burrell, anyone
disagreeing with him was thrown to the lions in the Arena. He also got
the Senate to name his horse consul.(49) Everyone was thankful when he
was assassinated in 41 AD. Caligula was succeeded by several emperors
who did nothing governmentally, including Claudius and Nero.

Around the second century AD, the Empire began to crumble.
Wave after wave of barbarian invaders, especially the Huns, chipped
away at the state. Eventually some of the provinces had to be
abandoned. At the end of the third century, Emperor Diocletian decided
the empire was two big, and split it in two. He ruled the east from
Turkey, and commissioned Maximian to rule the west from Milan. He
called this form of government the Dominate, from Latin dominus,
meaning master. There were two Augusti, who ruled the east and west,
and under them there were two Caesars, who were like vice-presidents.
The two Caesars of the east and west were Constantine and Galerius,
respectively. Diocletian turned his empire into something like a
feudal system, where peasants were deprived of personal freedom and
tied to the soil. He renamed citizens to subjects. In 305, Diocletian
and Maximian stepped down as Augusti, resulting in civil wars between
the old Caesars and new Augusti. Eventually, Constantine the Great
came out on top in 312. Constantine’s troops made him emperor, and he
ruled the entire Empire from Byzantium, which he renamed
Constantinople. Constantine was the first Christian ruler of the

Alaric of the Visgoths helped the emperor Theodosius crush a
rebellion. Unfortunately, Theodosius died before he could reward
Alaric. The new emperor, Honorius, cut Alaric off from Rome, which he
resented deeply. Alaric took his army to Constantinople, but found it
too well guarded. He then led his army to the city of Rome, where, in
the fifth century, sacked it.

The Empire continued to fall to barbarians. The east and west
sides of the Empire were in a virtual state of war. In 429, Vandals
conquered Africa. In 410, Britain fell. In 451, the Huns took most of
Europe. When Atilla the Hun came to Rome, Pope Leo was able to
convince him to spare the city. In 455, Vandals came and sacked Rome.
In the year 476 AD, the last emperor died, marking the fall of the
Roman Empire, one of the greatest ever. That last emperor’s name was,
ironically, Romulus.

The Roman Kingdom, Republic, Empire, Dictatorship, and others
have affected all of us. The United States government in commonly
known as a democracy, but it’s actually a Republic, almost identical
to the Roman one. The Roman government was one of the most powerful
ever, at one point ruling most of the civilized world. It is almost
certainly the best known. Ask anyone about Romulus and Remus, Gaius
Julius Caesar, Augustus, Caligula, Nero, Constantine; they’ll know who
you’re talking about. The term Caesar was used to mean ruler for
thousands of years after his death. Both the German word Kaiser as
well as the Russian word Czar are from the name Caesar and mean ruler.
Today some three-fourths of the countries are Republic, styled after
the Romans. The Romans are probably the most influential people of

Works Cited

Actium, Battle of. Computer Software. Encarta Encyclopedia, 1996 ed.

Adcock, F. E. Roman Political Ideas and Practice. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan, 1959.

Asimov, Isaac. The Roman Republic. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.

Burrell, Roy. The Romans. Oxford: Oxford University, 1991.

Caesar. Computer Software. Encarta Encyclopedia, 1996 ed.

Caesar, Gaius Julius. Computer Software. Encarta Encyclopedia, 1996

Gibson, Elke. Personal Interview. 19 March 1997.

Nardo, Don. The Roman Republic. San Diego: Lucent, 1994.

“The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine.” CIS: Research and
Education (16 March 1997).

Republic. Computer Software. Encarta Encyclopedia, 1996 ed.

Rise of Rome (753-44 BC). Computer Software. Encarta Encyclopedia,
1996 ed.

“Rome, Ancient – the Empire.” CIS: http://isdup/menu/133.html;
Research and Education, Academic American Encyclopedia; Grolier’s (16
March 1997) .

Rome, History of. Computer Software. Encarta Encyclopedia, 1996 ed.

Sabines. Computer Software. Encarta Encyclopedia, 1996 ed.

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Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...


Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...