National Missial Defense

Word Count: 1867 |

In Andrew Jackson?s farewell address to the nation, he stated, ?We shall more certainly preserve peace when it is well understood that we are prepared for war,? (Political Quotations #3719). The United States has always throughout history been a major military power from the use of abnormal tactics during the Revolutionary War (1776) to the use of its technology and advanced weapons in the Persian Gulf War (1991). After World War II and the Cold War Era, the United States has been able to defend its citizens from any form of a military attack from the sea, air, and the ground on the eastern and western seaboards. With the development of the intercontinental ballistic missiles, the United States was now unable to protect the citizens from this new form of military attack a missile with a chemical or nuclear warhead. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan called upon the men and women who developed the new form of the attack, used to force Japan into signing a peace treaty, to develop a strategic defense initiative also known as ?Star Wars,? which proposed to defend the continental United States from a missile attack by intercepting it before reaching its intended target. Today seventeen years after President Ronald Reagan?s speech, the United States is still unable to intercept and destroy any incoming missiles. With the slit and financial problems of the former Soviet Union States the United States now has to worry about the Russian government selling their arsenal of nuclear and chemical weapons to other nations around the world. In order to preserve its national security from ballistic missiles, the United States should proceed with its plans for the National Missile Defense System to protect its citizens from these attacks.

The Concept of a National Missile Defense System began with President Ronald Reagan?s 1983 speech. During his speech, he called for an impenetrable shield that would protect the entire United States from a ballistic missile attack (Kitfield 111-112). Shortly after President Ronald Reagan?s speech the United States and former Soviet Union States signed the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty, which prohibits any such systems as the National Missile Defense System. Dale Grant of the Toronto Star stated that ?Ronald Reagan sketched out a futuristic concept of a orbital defenses able to attack Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) from the moment of launch to just before impact on the target,? (D 1+). Ronald Reagan brought the concept of a national missile defense system but had no way to build it because of the lack of available technology. Then during the Persian Gulf War the Patriot Missile System was used to shoot down Iraq?s SCUD missiles flying towards other nations. (Kitfield 119-121). The system?s history started in 1983 with Ronald Reagan?s speech, but was only used during the 1991 Persian Gulf War in a reduced in the form, of the Patriot Missile system to defend nation of Israel.

The American people feel the system is unnecessary for the protection of the mainland United States. The United States is currently unable of intercepting a ballistic missile warhead once it has been deployed against the United States (Freeman 37+). Along with these threats from the former Soviet Union States the United States now has to worry about such ?Rogue nations? like North Korea, Iran and Iraq. During the 1990?s, some experts believed that it would take such ?rogue nations? at least a decade to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of reaching the continental United States. (Kitfield 111-112). Paul Freeman reported ?Most Americans, however, believe that there is adequate capability of defend their homeland against a ballistic missile attack. (37+). The American people do not believe that these ?rogue nations? have the capability to destroy American cities. The threat is there the question is not there capably but their willingness to use nuclear or chemical weapons against the United States.

Along with the American people, the world?s opinion and Antiballistic Missile Treaty are holding the United States back from the development of the National Missile Defense System The government?s plans to erect a satellite controlled national missile defense system to protect against ?rogue nations? ballistic missiles in fear of inciting a Cold War in Asia. (Martinson 1.2+) Opponents of the system point to the ban of such systems by the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. (A Correct Call to Delay Missile Defense. A6+). The Antiballistic Missile Treaty was first in a series of reduction agreements between the former Soviet Union and the United States, and also provided the global framework for gradual elimination of weapons of mass destruction. (Grant D1+, ?A Correct Call to Delay Missile Defense A6+). Nevertheless, Jane Perlez of the New York Times reported that ?Some experts argue that the Antiballistic Missile Treaty should be unilaterally scrapped if necessary,? (Perlez A9+). The Antiballistic Missile Treaty was signed during the Cold War has not gone back to the Senate for approval after the fall of the Soviet Union States. With the treaty not approved by the Senate after the fall, the treaty is invalid. With the treaty being invalid would allow the Unites States to proceed with the plans for the National Missile Defense System, and provide protection from a ballistic missile attack.

Along with the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty, the opposition of Russia and China along with other nations around the world is strongly against the building of the National Missile Defense System. The Chinese government has gone as far to say that they will increase the missiles in their arsenal as to overwhelm the system. Along with Russia has insisted that its reduction of nuclear and chemical weapons would stop if the development goes forward with the National Missile Defense System. (?A Correct Call to Delay Missile Defense?A6).

In January 1992, Boris Yeltsin spoke in front of the United Nations General Assembly that Russia was ?Ready to work out and operate a global system of defense in place of the SDI,? (Grant D1+). Yet, the Russian Government has taken the status of protestation of America building its own National Missile Defense Program. The only way to satisfy the other governments of the world would have to involve the scraping the plans to develop a system to defend it citizens from a missile attack.

The threat of a nuclear, biological or chemical weapon attack has led the Defense Department to test a ?mock? National Missile Defense Program to protect the country from attack from ?Rouge Nations?. Paul Freeman reports that ?Eleven countries have been identified at least tentatively with developing chemical weapons with ballistic missiles, and nearly all of them have admitted to having a defensive research program.? (Freeman 37+). This would provide these nations the capable to launch an missile attack against the continental United States, and protect themselves against retaliation. From the former Soviet Union States, four have started towards research towards ICBMs (Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles) with the capable of reaching the continental United States. (Freeman 37+). During the 1990?s, the Iran and Chinese governments have signed agreements to transfer technologies of missiles plans The Chinese have also signed agreements with Iraq to transfer missile technologies. China has also signed agreements with Syria to support their missile programs. The North Korean government turned to China and Russia for assistance for their missile programs. The National Missile Defense System would provide the continental United States, form rogue nations threat posses the technology to launch an missile attack. With so many nations in agreements of transferring missile technology the need for the National Missile Defense System would benefit the American citizens

With more than eleven countries capable of reaching the continental United States with ballistic, chemical or nuclear missiles, the United States should proceed with its plans for a national missile defense system. The National Missile Defense System all started with President Ronald Reagan?s 1981 speech to defend the United States from a missile attack , be it nuclear or conventional missiles, of the former Soviet Union States origin. Calling upon the men and women who developed the weapons used upon the Japanese mainland to force them into signing a peace treaty to end the World War II. Even before the development of nuclear weapons, air warfare, and even before the development of gunpowder Cardinal Richelieu stated in 1687 ? Just as with the soldier who does not carry his sword at all times is subject to mishaps, so too the Kingdom that is not always prepared has much to fear,? (Political Quotations # 3682). Little did Cardinal Richelieu know that the world would develop a weapon capable of destroying miles of a civilization at a simple turn of a key. When Cardinal Richelieu lived the worst form of war was a man on horseback with a sword rushing another man on horseback. Today warfare is fought with computers and missiles. In 1975, Lord Louis Mountbatten stated, “If the Third World War is fought with nuclear weapons, the fourth will be fought with bows and arrows,” (Political Quotations). Except when the United States develops the National Missile Defense System.

Works Cited

Anzouin, Steven. ed. The Star Wars Debate New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1986.

Baker, Daniel B., ed. Political Quotations Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1990

?A Correct Call to Delay Missile Defense.? Roanoke Times and World News. 25 Sept. 2000:

A6 Platinum Periodicals. ProQuest Direct. Arch Rummel HS Lib., Metairie. 1 Nov.


Freeman, Paul. ?US Mainland Vulnerable to Ballistic Missile Threat.? National Defense Dec. 1997: 37+. Platinum Periodicals ProQuest Direct. Arch. Rummel HS Lib., Metairie 1 Nov. 2000

Kitfield, James ?On the Brink of National Missile Defense.? Government Executive. Aug.

111-112. Platinum Periodicals ProQuest Direct. Arch. Rummel HS Lib., Metairie 1 Nov. 2000

Kitfield, James. ?Building a Missile Shield.? Government Executive. Aug. 1997 119-120.

Platinum Periodicals ProQuest Direct. Arch. Rummel HS Lib., Metairie 1 Nov. 2000

Martinson, June. ?Clinton Aids back Missile Shield.? The Guardian 7 Aug. 2000: 1.2+

Platinum Periodicals ProQuest Direct. Arch. Rummel HS Lib., Metairie 1 Nov. 2000

Perlez June. ?Antimissile Defense: Clinton Decides to Keep US Options Open.? The New York Times. 2 Sept. 2000: A.9+ Platinum Periodicals ProQuest Direct. Arch. Rummel HS

Lib., Metairie 1 Nov. 2000

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Allegory Of American Pie By Don Mc Lean

Ask anyone what was the defining moment in the rock history of the 1960s was and all you will get is a one word answer: Woodstock. The three day rock festival that defined an era was only one of many music festivals of the '60s. But Woodstock has come to symbolize, "an era of peaceful, free- loving, drug- taking hippie youth, carefree before harsher realities hit..." (Layman 40). The Woodstock festival ended a century filled with many metamorphoses of rock'n'roll, from the era of pop music to the rebirth of folk music to the invention of acid rock. But some cynics say that rock'n'roll died with the death of Buddy Holly before the 60s even began. One such person is Don McLean. The poet behind the haunting epic song about the death of 'danceable' music, McLean wrote the ever popular song, "American Pie" (appendix 1). The most important song in rock'n'roll history, "American Pie", is the song about the demise of rock'n'roll after Buddy Holly's death and the heathenism of rock that resulted. Although McLean himself won't reveal any symbolism in his songs, "American Pie" is one of the most analyzed pieces of literature in modern society. Although not all of its secrets have been revealed, many "scholars" of the sixties will agree that the mystery of this song is one of the reasons it has become so successful- everyone wants to know the meanings of its allegories. Proof of "American Pie's" truth lies in the allegory of the song. Many People enjoy the song but have no idea what it means- Who is the Jester? What is the levee? When the deeper story is found, the importance of the song is unearthed. "American Pie" is not only a song, it is an epic poem about the course of rock'n'roll...

Carl Orffs Philosophies In Music Education

While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first attempts at composing. Although Orff was adamant about the secrecy of his past, Moser's Musik Lexicon says that he studied in the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. Orff then served in the military in the first world war. After the war, he held various positions in the Mannheim and Darmstadt opera houses then returned home to Munich to further study music. In 1925, and for the rest of his life, Orff was the head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich where he worked with musical beginners. This is where he developed his Music Education theories. In 1937, Orff's Carmina Burana premiered in Frankfurt, Germany. Needless to say, it was a great success. With the success of Carmina Burana, Orff orphaned all of his previous works except for Catulli Carmina and the En trata which were rewritten to be acceptable by Orff. One of Orff's most admired composers was Monteverdi. In fact, much of Orff's work was based on ancient material. Orff said: I am often asked why I nearly always select old material, fairy tales and legends for my stage works. I do not look upon them as old, but rather as valid material. The time element disappears, and only the spiritual power remains. My...

Johann Sebastian Bach Biography

Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...


Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...