Outsourcing Information Technology And India S Economic Development

Word Count: 5414 |

Outsourcing Information Technology and India’s Economic Development
India, with its 3.28 million square kilometer landmass and a population of over one billion, is one of the largest countries in the world, in terms of both size and human resources. Since it became independent in 1947, India’s economic policy can be divided into two phases – import substitution and economic liberalization. Unlike lot of other Asian countries, India’s development has not been so obvious until recently. However, in little over a decade, India became the world’s “think-tank” and the hub for international outsourcing.
Outsourcing generally means services previously provided in-house are bought in from third parties; it is categorized into two on the basis of location of the provider. If the contract is given to a third party located within the national border, it is called “onshoring,” and if the service provider is located elsewhere, it is referred to as “offshoring” (Datar, 10)
As the world’s most important offshoring location, the Indian subcontinent commands over 44% of the global market for IT and IT based business processes, or in abbreviation BPO (Schaaf, 1). How did a country whose success in both exports and industrialization have been modest, suddenly achieve prominence and global competitiveness in a leading edge sector? The issue is even more puzzling if one keeps in mind that conventional indicators of IT penetration, such as personal computers per thousand population, internet subscribers, telephone connections, scientists and engineers per million, all make India look decidedly mediocre. The country’s telecommunications infrastructure remains weak, and few Indians have access to a PC, let alone to the Internet. As if it’s not enough, India’s ranking in the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP’s) new Technology Achievement Index (TAI) is a modest 63, not exactly indicative of a country that has achieved a buzz in the extremely competitive and sophisticated global IT markets (Kapur, 92).
Is India becoming to global service trade what China has become to global manufacturing trade?
This paper is an attempt to understand the causes and effects of outsourcing information technology (IT) to India. It will discuss the characteristics of Indian economy that draws international businesses and the consequences it has on the Indian economy. Challenges faced by the Indian outsourcing firms will also be discussed.
India – Two Phases of Development
Like most of the countries emerging from colonialism, India initially followed a policy of import-substitution, aiming to be self-sufficient. This policy however, did not do much good to the Indian economy. India fell behind while the South-East Asian countries witnessed phenomenal growth. (Kochar, 27).
The Indian economy started undergoing major changes starting in 1980s, and reforms accelerated in the early 90s. The key features of reforms in the 1980s were (i) import liberalization—especially of capital goods and intermediate inputs, (ii) and extension of export incentives through the tax system (Kochar, 12). The reforms of the 1990s further opened up the economy (Kochar, 12). Import licensing was abolished and progressive reduction of non-tariff barriers were put in place and domestic producers were granted more freedom. Liberalization was witnessed in the form of freer entrance to domestic and foreign private banks, opening up of the insurance sector. These reforms were reflected in sharp acceleration of the growth rate: the annual average rate of growth of GDP per worker increased from 0.69 percent in the 1970s to 3.9 and 3.3 percent, respectively in the 1980s and 1990s (Kochar, 12).
Causes for Outsourcing – Why India?
It is a known fact that India is the most important location for IT services and business process outsourcing. The country commands well over 65% of the global IT-sector offshoring market and there is no threat for India’s position in the foreseeable future (Lanzeni, 4). Six years back, the Indian IT services earned a measly $6.2 billion in export revenue, by 2010; the industry is expected to generate export revenues of $60 billion (NASSCOM McKinsey Report 2005, 2). Why is India getting all these billion dollar deals despite its humiliating infrastructure, lengthy legal processes and poor transportation network? This puzzle can be answered when the country’s comparative advantages are studied. Some of the major reasons behind India’s success in the industry are:
Cost Advantage:
The most decisive advantage is India’s huge pool of human resources. India’s current population is well over one billion, and it is expected that India’s labor supply would increase by 250 million by 2020. It is an addition of 15 million people every year (Schaaf, 3).
Despite India’s high illiteracy rate, by the late 1990s India was producing about 65,000 engineers and 95,000 diploma-holders annually in engineering and technology through a large network of public and private colleges (Kapur, 97). The system was producing nearly 100,000 IT professionals annually, many through private institutes, and the figure is projected to increase to half a million by 2006 (Kapur, 97).
Due to this large pool of skilled laborers, the Indian engineers and programmers don’t earn much; their annual pay is not even close to their American counterparts. The annual income of an Indian IT employee with one or two years of experience is only about $ 8000, and the inexperienced ones earn even less (Schaaf, 3). However, the big multinationals don’t base their decisions on pay alone; they have to take into consideration all the cost they have to incur. It includes expenses incurred on establishment of new workplace, development of telecommunication network, management cost, and other miscellaneous costs. Thanks to the wage differential, there is still room for savings (Schaaf, 4).
However, this is not enough to attract off-shoring to India. When we compare the different off-shoring locations, we have to take into account the affects of tax policies, education standard, and infrastructure variation. After taking all these into consideration, India still offers the best package. One Fortune 500 firm that consolidated several fulfillment operations to Bangalore reported that the overall cost savings were 80 percent (Arora, 14). These represent significant dollar savings.
Education, Skilled Workforce and Global Recognition:
For a poor country, India spends far more resources on higher education than on primary education. For example, in 2000, India spent 86 percent of per capita GDP on each student in tertiary education in 2000 while it spent 14 percent of per capita GDP per student in primary education. By contrast, Thailand spent 33 percent and China 10.7 percent of per capita GDP per student in tertiary education in 2000, while they spent 16.5 percent and 12.1 percent of per capita GDP respectively per student in primary education (Kochar, 5). The seven IITs (Indian Institute of technology) have a reputation of producing engineers and programmers of top caliber, and all of these institutions are located in high-tech clusters, hence catching the attention of the big clients.
India not only has a large number of skilled workforce, but the IT companies strive hard for quality. This is reflected by the large number of Indian companies recognized internationally for their high quality work standard. Out of the 80 software companies in the world with a CMM 5 rating in 2003, 60 came from India (Schaaf, 5). CMM is a standard for measuring quality for software development and CMM 5 is the highest rating.
Government Policies:
Unlike other sectors of the economy, state intervention had been absent in the IT development. India’s IT minister, Pramod Mahajan, once made a clever remark that India is a leader in “IT and beauty contests, the two areas that the government has stayed out of” (Kapur, 103). This policy of non-intervention is one of the reasons why India is able to attract lot of clients. The sector is driven by private firms that stay on the edge of technological know-how by competing with the big players at the global level. The government not only stayed out of IT industry, it also adopted the industry as one of the top five priority industries. A separate Ministry of Information Technology has also been set up to expedite the swift approval and implementation of IT projects and to streamline the regulatory process (Why outsource to India, 4).
One of the greatest advancement in IT came with the establishment of the first STPI in 1989. Software technological parks offer world-class infrastructure and various incentives and concessions to encourage foreign investment and to promote software development in India. 100% foreign ownership has been permitted in the STPs and these parks were granted tax holiday until the year 2010 (Why outsource to India, 4). By July 2004 a total of 40 STPs had been set up, and 20 more are planned to be established by 2012. In March 2004, the STPs were home to a total of 4,644 companies (Schaaf, 6). More than three-quarters of them export software products. The development of such STPs provided a great deal of benefits (Schaaf, 6). Like the Silicon Valley, most of the Indian IT companies are concentrated in Bangalore. This concentration gives them a number of advantages – plenty of skilled workers are always available ready to be utilized, and knowledge spillovers keep them on the cutting-edge of technology at all times.
Keeping the importance of IT industry for growth of the India’s economy, the Indian Parliament passed the IT Act in May 2000. The IT Bill brings E-commerce within the purview of law and accords stringent punishments to “cyber criminals”. With this law, India has joined a select band of 12 nations that have cyber laws (Why outsource to India, 4).

The strength of a united voice is one of the key success factors in business. Unlike other sectors in India, the National Association of Software and Service Companies has been very successful in lobbying the government. All software companies in India, both domestic and foreign are representative by this association and this gives the industry a unified voice, and it has been successful in promoting the sector’s interest. The seven fold strategies according to the organization’s website are:
• Partner with Government of India and State Governments in formulating IT policies and legislation. Partner with global stakeholders for promoting the industry in global markets.
• Strive for a thought leadership position and deliver world-class research and strategic inputs for the industry and its stakeholders.
• Encourage members to uphold world class quality standards.
• Strive to uphold Intellectual Property Rights of its members.
• Strengthen the brand equity of India as a premier global sourcing destination.
• Expand the quantity and quality of the talent pool in India.
• Continuous engagement with all member companies and stakeholders to devise strategies to achieve shared aspirations for the industry and the country.
The Diaspora Network and Confidence of Global Corporations
The Indian Diaspora also plays an important role in creating a link between the multinationals and the home country. More than 750 companies in Silicon Valley are led by Indian-Americans (Why outsource to India, 1). They have boosted the confidence of the foreign investors in India’s potential despite innumerable problems. Companies like Yahoo, HP and GE created establishments in Bangalore based solely on the confidence provided by the large number of Indians working for them domestically (Kapur, 100). A Diaspora network is important for building up the reputation for India, which is extremely important in sectors where knowledge is the key. The successful Indians in Silicon Valley appear to be influencing how the world views India.
Cultural and Historical Advantage:
Cultural and historical factors also played a major role in attracting the western clients, even though these factors are not so intentional and obvious.
India was under British occupation for more than two centuries, and exposure to British culture and language came in handy when outsourcing opportunities came by. In the 1950s, language policy became a divisive tool among the Indians, bringing the country to the brink of instability. The non Hindi speaking majority had the fear of being dominated by the northern Hindi speaking minority. As a measure to combat this problem, even though Hindi was made the national language, it was not to be imposed on the non-Hindi speaking mass, and English instead enjoyed the status of the national language. Today, more than 350 million Indians speak English, that is more English speaking population than US and UK combined (Crystal, 2). This is one of the primary reasons why India gets the lion’s share in off-shoring, despite stiff competition from China and Russia.
Before the economic liberalization of India in the 80s, the Indian government was very inhospitable towards foreign companies. The departure of IBM in the late 1970s and the protection of India’s hardware sector led to the development of software skills in a form of induced innovation (Athreye, 8). The very limitations, technological and cost, of hardware in India meant that developing software skills was the only way to overcome them. IBM’s departure paved the way for the introduction of minicomputers and microcomputers. Most of these new systems used the UNIX operating language and as it gained popularity world-wide, Indian programmers had an early learning advantage (Kapur, 5).
The demand for software engineers and programmers increased more than the relative supply in the USA, and as a result, foreign specialists were given special work visas. Between 1999 and 2000, 43% of the total H-1B visas were given to Indians; by the end of the year, there were 200,000 Indians under this visa classification (Schaaf, 6).
All these factors led to India becoming one of the major players in the Global IT business and most of the researchers in this field believe that India will not face much competition at least for a while. But before generalizing anything, let’s take a look at the consequences of IT outsourcing on the Indian economy.
Economic development often follows a sequence whereby the share of the agriculture sector in GDP declines progressively, with offsetting increases in the shares of the industry and service sectors. As an economy marches toward maturity, the share of industry in GDP stabilizes or contracts a little while that of services advances further. India’s economic transition, however, has been unusual. It appears to have skipped the industrialization phase and advanced immediately to a services sector-led economy (Kochar, 16). Instead of developing a manufacturing industry as it is dictated by its huge labor abundance, India’s emphasis on service sector has been notable. There are varying views about the pros and cons of the development of IT outsourcing, and some of the consequences are discussed below.
Service Sector Expansion:
With the change in economic policy in the 80s, India’s sectoral pattern evolved tremendously. Between 1980 and 2002, India’s share of services in value added went up from 37 percent to 49 percent, while its share of manufacturing in value added remained broadly unchanged at 16 percent, with the decline in agriculture mirroring the performance of services (Lanzeni, 8). The corresponding numbers for employment were 19 percent to 22 percent and 14 percent to 18 percent (Lanzeni, 8). India’s service sector now constitutes about 50% of GDP – compared with about 25% five decades ago (Lanzeni, 8)
However, this increase in service sector is not reflected in the size of its employment. India was falling well below other countries by a huge 17% in 2000. Gupta and Gordon noted that unlike other developing countries, India’s labor share in service has been rather flat instead of growing with income. The rise in value added without a corresponding increase in employment can be explained only by one factor – India’s labor productivity in service sector should have risen remarkably. Since 1980, software and information technology has been the leading development in the service sector.
Economies of Scale:
With the growing productivity of Indian service sector, especially in the field of IT development, the Indian managers and programmers gained experiences and expertise. This is reflected in their achievement of economies of scale – both in terms of internal and external.
The Indian outsourcing companies are now moving away from simple programming and straightforward IT-based programs to more complex projects that yield higher margin. They are climbing up the value chain, by providing quality services like consulting in accounting and finance (Schaaf, 1). More innovative companies are still taking more risks by trying out more processes that require special expertise. KPO (knowledge process outsourcing) is the acquisition of expert knowledge of Indian workers through IT-based tools. Concrete examples of KPO are – balance sheet analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises, and counseling by medical experts (NASSCOM).
The growth in IT is not restricted to national borders; Indian companies are setting up subsidiary offices in the USA and Europe to reach their western clients on a firsthand basis (Schaaf, 10). They are also buying small and medium sized companies to gain access to promising markets.
These developments are well reflected in the enormous increase in export of IT-based business processes. Export revenues from the BPO sector increased from US $2.5 billion in 2003 to $3.8 billion in 2004, it further went up beyond $5 billion in 2005. The revenue is estimated to reach 14 billion this year (Kapur, 103).

Employment Opportunity:
India is one of the most populated nations in the world, and three hundred million people continue to subsist on one dollar a day or less. Job creation and labor absorption are central to any economy, and it is especially critical for a country like India. The enormous boom in outsourcing is providing much needed job opportunities by alluring many high skilled workers to seek employment within the country, and it also dwindles down the negative effect of brain-drain (Kapur, 102).
The employment in outsourcing is increasing at a tremendous rate. In 2005, there were more than 700,000 experts working in the IT industry, which was a 25% increase from 2004. It is estimated that by the end of this year, they will be about 1.5 million people in this sector (Kapur, 103).
The Multinationals were attracted to outsource to India initially on the basis of availability of English educated cheap labor pool. As the MNCs move their operations into the country, they began to absorb a large number of English speaking high skilled workers. This demand has created incentives to achieve higher education as the potential benefits have increased. Sustained demand has resulted in the development of thousands of private degree and certificate programs throughout India (McDonald, 18).
The number of engineering degree holders alone has risen from 59,311 in 1997 to 141,646 in 2003 (McDonald, 18). More than half of the admitted students seek IT degrees, indicating the influence the sector has on education. The aggressive demand for this field of education led to the government establishing an entire sector of private education in IT with thousands of institutions throughout the country. The private companies are coming up with their own set of programs to fill the gap (McDonald, 19).
Growing Income Inequality:
However, the development of India as the locus for outsourcing is not only associated with benefits, there are many concerns at the same time. Critics argue that the excessive focus on the IT sector amplifies the income inequality between the rich and the poor. More than 70% of the Indian population is located in villages, and many of them even don’t have access to electricity and telephone, let alone computer and internet (Chandrashekhar, 9). The growing IT and BPO centers are located only in a handful of cities and this concentration creates an income breach between the people and different cities and states. Chandrashekhar reflects the skeptical view of effects of the IT industry, arguing that any benefits have been confined to urban elite, and that its growth has been based on cost advantages rather than deeper technological capabilities, making the continuation of growth doubtful.
Nevertheless, development of IT-sector facilitates diminishing the gender inequality. Participation rate of women in this sector is relatively high compared to other sectors of the economy (McDonald, 20).
Despite the fact that India currently is the number one spot for outsourcing, there are number of stumbling blocks that need to be cleared in order to gain maximum profit.
Increasing challenge from emerging markets:
India is not the only country with abundant English speaking, highly trained workers. Countries like Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh are coming up with their own outsourcing companies, modeled after the successful Indian pioneers. China and Philippines also pose an increasing threat. However, Russia and Eastern European countries are currently the strongest competitors against India. The principal market for Indian software exports is the USA, with a share of 67 percent, followed by Western Europe -21 percent and Japan – 2 percent (NASSCOM). Because of the minute distance, it is easier for the Western European nations to manage and supervise the operations if their outsourcing service providers are located in Europe. India might lose its European clients if Russia and the Eastern European nations change their policies making it favorable for the clients (Schaaf, 11).
Challenges are not only imposed by these nations. The big western IT service providers like IBM and EDS are increasingly establishing and expanding their developmental facilities in India, competing with the local companies both for foreign contracts and local workers (Schaaf, 9). This competition is driving up wages and squeezing margins. However, the expertise of the Indian companies is currently keeping them way ahead of their international competitors (Schaaf, 9).
The Indian companies are trying their hands at expansion too; they are looking for skilled workers from neighboring countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan. One of the leading Indian companies – Infosys has more than 19,000 employees of 38 nationalities in 16 nations (Schaaf, 9).
Higher Turnover:
The increase in workforce is accompanied by higher turnover. In the call-centers, the annual turnover exceeds 50%, and among IT providers, it is about 15-30%, while the turnover has risen up to 40% in the BPO sector (Schaaf, 8).
The high turnover is a result of demand being less than supply, and the huge supply of skilled workers is a direct consequence of the ever-increasing pay rates in these sectors. Average nominal pay increases by 12-15% annually, thus making it an attractive job to acquire (Schaaf, 8). In particular, the smaller firms are having a difficult time maintaining their experienced staff. They are being attracted by the established big players who offer them better package – higher salary, better stock options and employee friendly conditions (Schaaf, 8).
This high turnover is making the IT unemployment rate higher. Many IT-graduates who don’t have enough skills to be selected by the companies remain unemployed.
Weak Infrastructure:
One of the main hindrances for the Indian IT – companies and their western clients is the weak physical infrastructure. One or two hours of power outages are common in India, and sometimes these power shortages last even for days. Such hindrances waste lot of money and time. In order to prevent such frequent disturbances, many companies incurred an additional expense in setting up their power supply.
Transportation network is also pathetic in India. Roads are not properly paved and traffic in big cities is miserable, especially during rush-hour. Railway system is obsolete, and it makes transportation of goods and passengers complicated. Ports and airports are also not different. There are more non-operating airports than operating ones (Sagar, 7).
Counteractive actions, however, are on political agendas. In September 2003, the Government announced plans to carry out the modernization of Delhi and Mumbai airports. It is envisaged that two separate public-private joint venture companies will be formed to manage the airports and each of these companies will be granted a lease of the particular airport it is to manage (Sagar, 8).
On top of these obstacles, political and security risks still remain. Despite the recent harmony, the Kashmir issue is still no reconciled. Frequent security checks make traveling in India difficult and bothersome (McDonald, 21).
Despite few shortcomings, India still is the leader in global IT development and outsourcing. India’s control in this cutting-edge sector is based on its comparative advantages, not just because of the wage differential. India has comparative advantage in terms of its English speaking high-skilled workers, earlier head start in software development, and a bunch of other factors.
The success in development of IT-sector led to India’s service sector getting a bigger share of the economy’s value added sphere, and the experiences and expertise gained by the managers and workers led to the sector achieve economies of scale. Outsourcing also gave lot of employment opportunities for the Indians; currently, Bangalore employs more engineers than Silicon Valley. Education competitiveness was also brought to a whole new level with the start of western multinationals establishing their operations in India
However, the Indian IT sector is not just filled with roses. There are negative consequences, and the wage differential is the main problem that is pointed out by the critics. Only 30% of the population is located in the urban areas, and the rest is still in rural India with no access to electricity and basic necessities. Moreover, this development is not uniformly stretched in all the urban areas; it is concentrated in just a handful of cities. This uneven allocation is viewed by many critics as one of the major problems with the development of IT-sector.
Even though there are no threats for India in the foreseeable future, there are still challenges India has to overcome in order to retain its current position. The country’s weak physical infrastructure is one of the problems that are frequently faced by the companies, frequent outages in power supply, and poor transportatison network makes it difficult to perform work at its best quality.
India’s position is increasingly being challenged by emerging nations like Russia, China, and few Eastern and Middle European nations. Russia and the Middle-East European nations are currently trying their best to deprive India of its Western clients. Another threat is posed by the big multinationals like IBM who are expanding their outsourcing establishments in cheap-labored economies.
The government and the companies started taking counter action against these problems. The Indian companies are climbing up the value chain and they are trying to expand their horizon, by recruiting people from different nations, and establishing subsidiary offices in USA and Europe to create a firsthand contract with its clients.
Broader base reforms should be introduced in order to make the best use of its comparative advantages. Reforms should give special emphasis on improving education, both in length and depth, making them superior to their competition. Reducing regional differences should also be a priority, in order to reach the growth to a broader mass. India, however, should not focus merely on service sector, like its Asian counterparts, India should still try to establish a strong manufacturing industry in order to create opportunity for the larger mass of its population who are still dwelling in rural India, living a subsistent life.

Works Cited
“About NASSCOM.” 3 March 2006. NASSCOM: National Association of Software and Services Company. 12 November 2007 .
Arora, Ashist and Suma Athreye. “The Software Industry and India’s Economic Development.” June 2001. United Nations University. Wider. 13 October 2007 .
Athreye, Suma S. “Indian Software Industry and its Evolving Service Capabilities.” January 2005. Open University, UK. 12 11 2007 .
Chandrashekar, C. P. “ICT in a Developing Country Context: An Indian Case Study.” Centre for Economic Studies and Planning. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. 03 October 2007 .
Crystal, David. “Subcontinent Raises its Voice.” 19 November 2004. Guardian Weekly. 18 October 2007 .
Datar, Ravindra. “De-Mystifying Outsourcing.” 2005. Patni. 2 November 2007 .
Heymann, Eric. “Dynamic Sectors Give Global Growth Centers the Edge.” 31 October 2005. Deutsche Bank Research. 22 October 2007 .
Kapur, Davesh. “The Causes and Consequences of India’s IT Boom.” April 2002. University of Pennsylvannia. 09 October 2007 .
Kochar, Kalpana; Kumar, Utsav; Rajan, Raghuram; Subramanian, Arvind; Tokadlitis, Ioannis;. “India’s Pattern of Development: What Happened, What Follows.” 14 November 2005. Carnegie-Rochester. 21 10 2007 .
Lanzeni, Maria N. “India Rising: A Medium Term Perspective.” 19 May 2005. India Special: Deutsche Bank Research. 04 October 2007 .
McDonald, Sean M. and Travis J Jacobs. “Brand Name ‘India’: The Rise of Outsourcing.” 2 November 2005. Int. J. Management Practice. 09 November 2007 .
Murthy, Subramanyam. “The Impact of Global IT Outsourcing on its Providers.” 2004. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 16 November 2007 .
“NASSCOM-Mckinsey Report 2005.” 2005. Mckinsey. 17 10 2007 .
Sagar, J Associates. “India Infrastructure Update.” August/Septembet 2004. J. Sagar Associates: Advocates and Solicitors. 2 November 2007 .
Schaaf, Jurgan. “Outsourcing to India: Crouching Tiger Set to Pounce.” 25 October 2005. Deutsche Bank Research. 28 October 2007 .
“Why Outsource to India?” 2007. Outsource 2 India. 28 October 2007 .

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Allegory Of American Pie By Don Mc Lean

Ask anyone what was the defining moment in the rock history of the 1960s was and all you will get is a one word answer: Woodstock. The three day rock festival that defined an era was only one of many music festivals of the '60s. But Woodstock has come to symbolize, "an era of peaceful, free- loving, drug- taking hippie youth, carefree before harsher realities hit..." (Layman 40). The Woodstock festival ended a century filled with many metamorphoses of rock'n'roll, from the era of pop music to the rebirth of folk music to the invention of acid rock. But some cynics say that rock'n'roll died with the death of Buddy Holly before the 60s even began. One such person is Don McLean. The poet behind the haunting epic song about the death of 'danceable' music, McLean wrote the ever popular song, "American Pie" (appendix 1). The most important song in rock'n'roll history, "American Pie", is the song about the demise of rock'n'roll after Buddy Holly's death and the heathenism of rock that resulted. Although McLean himself won't reveal any symbolism in his songs, "American Pie" is one of the most analyzed pieces of literature in modern society. Although not all of its secrets have been revealed, many "scholars" of the sixties will agree that the mystery of this song is one of the reasons it has become so successful- everyone wants to know the meanings of its allegories. Proof of "American Pie's" truth lies in the allegory of the song. Many People enjoy the song but have no idea what it means- Who is the Jester? What is the levee? When the deeper story is found, the importance of the song is unearthed. "American Pie" is not only a song, it is an epic poem about the course of rock'n'roll...

Carl Orffs Philosophies In Music Education

While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first attempts at composing. Although Orff was adamant about the secrecy of his past, Moser's Musik Lexicon says that he studied in the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. Orff then served in the military in the first world war. After the war, he held various positions in the Mannheim and Darmstadt opera houses then returned home to Munich to further study music. In 1925, and for the rest of his life, Orff was the head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich where he worked with musical beginners. This is where he developed his Music Education theories. In 1937, Orff's Carmina Burana premiered in Frankfurt, Germany. Needless to say, it was a great success. With the success of Carmina Burana, Orff orphaned all of his previous works except for Catulli Carmina and the En trata which were rewritten to be acceptable by Orff. One of Orff's most admired composers was Monteverdi. In fact, much of Orff's work was based on ancient material. Orff said: I am often asked why I nearly always select old material, fairy tales and legends for my stage works. I do not look upon them as old, but rather as valid material. The time element disappears, and only the spiritual power remains. My...

Johann Sebastian Bach Biography

Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have left indelible marks and influences that people today look back on to admire and aspire to. No exception to this idiom is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose impact on music was unforgettable to say the least. People today look back to his writings and works to both learn and admire. He truly can be considered a music history great. Bach, who came from a family of over 53 musicians, was nothing short of a virtuosic instrumentalist as well as a masterful composer. Born in Eisenach, Germany, on March 21, 1685, he was the son of a masterful violinist, Johann Ambrosius Bach, who taught his son the basic skills for string playing. Along with this string playing, Bach began to play the organ which is the instrument he would later on be noted for in history. His instruction on the organ came from the player at Eisenach's most important church. He instructed the young boy rather rigorously until his skills surpassed anyone?s expectations for someone of such a young age. Bach suffered early trauma when his parents died in 1695. He went to go live with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who also was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as introducing him to the harpsichord. The rigorous training on these instruments combined with Bach?s masterful skill paid off for him at an early age. After several years of studying with his older brother, he received a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Germany, which is located on the northern tip of the country. As a result, he left his brother?s tutelage and went to go and study there. The teenage years brought Bach to several parts of Germany where he...


Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo?s poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo?s sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it?s many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo?s main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo?s artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it?s natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life- representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope?s tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at...

Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin Ireland on October 16, 1854. He is one of the most talented and most controversial writers of his time. He was well known for his wit, flamboyance, and creative genius and with his little dramatic training showing his natural talent for stage and theatre. He is termed a martyr by some and may be the first true self-publicist and was known for his style of dress and odd behavior. Wilde, 1882 His Father, William Wilde, was a highly accredited doctor and his mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a writer of revolutionary poems. Oscar had a brother William Charles Kingsbury along with his father's three illegitimate children, Henry, Emily, and Mary. His sister, Isola Emily Francesca died in 1867 at only ten years of age from a sudden fever, greatly affecting Oscar and his family. He kept a lock of her hair in an envelope and later wrote the poem 'Requiescat' in her memory. Oscar and his brother William both attended the Protora Royal School at Enniskillen. He had little in common with the other children. He disliked games and took more interest in flowers and sunsets. He was extremely passionate about anything that had to do with ancient Greece and with Classics. Wilde during school years In 1871, he was awarded a Royal School Scholarship to Trinity College in Dublin and received many awards and earned the highest honor the college offered to an undergraduate, the Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, he also won the College's Berkley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship to Magdalen College, Oxford. After graduating from Oxford, Oscar moved to London with his friend Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter of the time. In 1878 his poem Ravenna was published, for which he won the...

The History Of Greek Theater

Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...