Queen Hatshepsut

Word Count: 2510 |


Hatshepsut was the first female ruler who ever ruled in all the history of the world. She was the

most remarkable women that influenced history as a whole as well as Egypt itself. She was the

first female pharaoh who ever ruled Egypt.

Hatshepsut came to be by her parents TuthmoseI and Aahmes. She had two brothers who

died prematurely and she was the favorite child. Unfortunately her two brothers both died. Since

she was the only child left, she would become heir to the throne when her father dies.

Hatshepsut’s family tree made it easier to understand and it is a bit complex. It starts with

Hatshepsut’s parents’ parents. Senseneb was married to AmenhotepI and had Tuthmose I, but

Amenhotep I, also had a child with Aahotpou II and they had Aahmes, who Tuthmose I married.

Tuthmose I and Aahmes had three children. They had two sons named Ouazmosou and

Amenmosou who both died prematurely. Their third child was none other than Hatshepsut. Her

father, Tuthmose I had a son with a commoner named Moutnofrit, their son was named

Tuthmose II. Hatshepsut and her half-brother Tuthmose II were married. There is more to this

family tree that I will discuss later.

When Hatshepsut’s father died they became the new rulers of Egypt. Tuthmose I died in

1512 and it became Tuthmose II and Hatshepsut’s turn to rule.

Tuthmose II was the one who was to gain the throne, but it was said that for the few years

of his reign, Hatshepsut was doing most of the decision making. Hatshepsut had a child but it

was very likely that it was her lovers, Senmut. But also Tuthmose II had a son with a commoner

whose name was Isis. Their son was named Tuthmose III.

Tuthmose II was pharaoh for only three or four years. Archeologists found some

markings on the surface of his mummy that indicate that he had died of skin disease. His son

with Isis, Tuthmose III, was too young so Hatshepsut was the person chosen to rule since

Tuthmose III worshipped as a priest of the god Amon. My opinion is that the only reason she

was able to become queen was because she was just serving as his regent. That is what most

people wanted because this was the last thing that they would have to deal with, a female queen

or king. But she was not at a person to just sit there and wait for the young TuthmoseIII to be old

enough to become king. (web page:” “)

She was his regent for a short period of time, but around 1503 she demanded herself to

become crowned pharaoh. She took s royal name that is only to be used by kings. She used the

full “pharaonic regalia,” even the fake beard and all, these things are only to be used by pharaohs.

A major part of her successful reign was her loyal and influential officials, they had control over

the most important parts of her government. (web page: ” “)

A man named Edouard Naville believed he deciphered Hatshepsut’s whole name. He said

it consisted of four parts. The first one was “standard” name, “she who is rich, powerful

through her’ka’s, her doubles. The second, nebti, is the pharaoh’s rule over both

East and West. Her third name was her “Horus” name, Horus names are the names that only

pharaoh’s can have. Hers reads as “The divine one in her risings.” And her last name uses two

cartouches, Kamara which means the “true double of Ra.” And “Hatshepsut.” (web page:

HATCART.HTML)

The name that was written on her seal was “the Horus, mighty by his Kas, the lord of East

and West abounding in years, the good goddess, the pious lady, the golden falcon, divine in her

rings, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Kamara, the daughter of Ra, Khnumit Amon,

Hatshepsut.”(web page:” “)

Before Hatshepsut became pharaoh she was always a female, but as she was crowned she

transformed into the appearance of a man. She wore the same outfit as the former pharaohs. Even

in her “great seal” she was referred to as a man, various information states the reason for this is

either the artists or scribes were wrong, it was too hard in Egyptian written language or

Egyptians could not have a female being a pharaoh, so Hatshepsut was referred to as male and

female. (web page: HATSHEPSUT.HTML, encyclopidia)

Hatshepsut was very productive as queen. But because she was not a male, but female

ruler there were problems she had to face. Most of the revolts Hatshepsut faced were because of

her nephew, Tothmose III. He was getting older and realized what was going on and he was not

happy about the whole situation at all. Everything that was in Queen Hatshepsut’s way she solved

the problem by using a smart and effective way. She spoke what she was trying to get across in

such a way that other people would want to accept them, so by this her ideas spread with

them.(encyclopidia, web page: hatshepsut.html)

She was very involved in the political life of Egypt and had good skills in it. She gave her

people confidence by, as I mentioned before, “becoming a male ruler.” She wore everything the

pharaohs wore and everything of her was in the form of a man. While she ruled there were no

wars but she sent vast amounts of expeditions, and built great temples. The temples that she

ordered to be built were wonderful accomplishments of the Egyptians skills in the area of

architecture.(Walter)

The massive obelisks that Queen Hatshepsut had built were the largest of their time.

Senmut was again the architect behind these jobs. Queen Hatshepsut had two large obelisks

made. They were made from red granite from Aswan. The obelisks were over ninety-five feet

long and weighed 700,000 pounds. They took seven months to be carved by hundreds of men

and then they had to move them. It is believed that “great levers must have been used to trundle

the enormous stone sledges. These sledges were hauled over

rollers to the edge of the Nile. There an embankment of sand had been built over a large boat.

Once on this embankment the obelisk was lowered by removing the sand. Freed from the

embankment, the craft carrying the obelisk floated downstream to its destination at Thebes on the

western side of the Nile. Many smaller boats were probably used to guide the laden barges on

their way. (Walter,web page: temlpe.html)

The obelisks were put on shore by large rollers. They made a ramp out of bricks, which

the obelisk was moved along it. They rested the bottom of it in a hole with sand over a block.

This caused the sand to move and the obelisk sank in place. At the very top of the massive stone,

there had been placed a mixture of gold and silver that glistened in the sun. The title of the

queen: ……”that her name might remaining enduring…..forever and ever…” ( ” “, ” “)

Hatshepsut had a child supposedly with her lover Senmut, who was also the great

architect behind the immense temple. He was also a member of the board and he had many titles,

so she made him a very prominent person. At that time another temple existed named the temple

of Mentuhotep II. But Hatshepsut’s temple was much bigger. (web page: temple.html)

Senmut designed the temple with rows of columns along the side of the temple and cliff

side. “That reflected the vertical patterns displayed by the cliff backdrop.” The temple was built

within the mountainside. “Two ramps connected the three levels, and on either side of the lower

incline were T-shaped papyrus pools.” (” “)

There were sphinxes and the Myrrh trees from Punt. The sweet smell of these trees must

of made the ground level of the temple smell gloriously wonderful. All the

Sphinxes had the heads of Hatshepsut, “and she is also represented by a lion in some of the

temple’s relives. Although she has no specific enemies, she is represented clawing at adversaries

and acpturing ‘birds of evil’ with a clapnet.” I believe that since Senmut was her lover and he was

being well benefited he did a really outstanding soul felt job on Hatshepsut’s temple. (” “)

The temple was like “an empty book”, and the “walls were the pages.” Since the temple

took about twenty years to build, as things Hatshepsut did then were they written on the walls.

Some things that were one the walls were the story of how Hatshepsut was the daughter of

Amon-Ra. Using propaganda this story is as follows:

“Amon took the form of the noble king Tuthmose and found the queen sleeping in her room.

With the pleasant odorous that proceeded from him announced his presence she

woke. He gave her his heart and showed himself in hid god like splendor. When he approached

the queen wept for joy at his strength and beauty and he gave her his loveàà(web page:

hatshepsut.html)

On the walls were also how she did a lot to take care and fix all the damage that

the former ruling Hyksos invaders, the expeditions that she sent to Punt and the great obelisks at

another temple called Karnak. (” “)

The main entrance of the temple, which Senmut designed, had a pylon gate of white

limestone. The temple had a lot of ramps that ended at a lot of terraces that had large statues of

Queen Hatshepsut. All the way at the top of the last ramp, there was an entrance that lead into a

“great colonnaded courtyard.” Behind the door hidden almost in the dark was a secret statue. The

statue was none other than Senmut. Many people believed that this statue in the great, holy, and

sacred temple of the Queen represents the “power of the commoner who dared proclaim his

deeds even in the sacred presents of the Queen’s temple.” (Walter)

In the center of the statues of Hatshepsut as a royal mortal being and as a pharaoh. In the

temple there was a large doorway. This doorway extended on, but not just anyone could enter

through here. For passing through here which had the statue of Amun. This place was the most

sacred and holy place, only priests were able to pass through here.(web page: temple.html)

Throughout the whole temple there were chapels for the gods: Hathor, goddess of the

Nile; Anubis, god of the dead; and to Hatshepsut. Most of what was printed on the walls of the

great temple were of the great voyages to Punt.(encyclopidia)

The extensive amount of expeditions that Queen Hatshepsut sent out went to a place

named Punt, at the Coast of Africa at the southernmost end of the Red Sea, which today it is

know as Somalia. The expeditions brought back great quantities and amounts of Gold, ebony,

animal skins, animals such as baboons, processed myrrh, myrrh trees, and spices. Myrrh is a

sticky sweet smelling substance, that the Egyptians used it for perfumes. Queen Hatshepsut

received tribute from lands such as Asia, Nubia, and Lybia. ( ” “)

All of the products of and from all the trading and the tribute they received were mainly

for the God Amon-Re. Queen Hatshepsut started building the great temple in Amon-Re’s honor. (

Hatshepsut sent a total number of five ships down the Red Sea to Punt. The reason for

this was simply to trade the produce of Egypt for that of Africa. The Africans that greeted the

Egyptians were pleased and happy to meet these new commoners. The Egyptian captain gave a

banquet which they ate “wine, bread, meat, beer, fruit, and all the good things of Egypt.”

(Walter)

The Egyptians exchanged metal tools and weapons and beads. The people of Punt

exchanged with them also rare plants, costly wood, cosmetics, hunting dogs, slaves, incense, and

leopard skins. After this voyage, sea trade with East Africa spread and grew wonderfully.( ” “,

encyclopidia)

This was the start for sea trade and voyages that Hatshepsut came up with to better her

Egypt. Since then Egyptians extended possibilities and made their voyages longer. There is proof

that suggests that Egyptian vessels reached the Aegeom, Crete, Asia Minor, and maybe even

Spain, before 1000 B.C. And “how far they traveled down the east coast of Africa or out into the

Arabian Sea is still unknown.” By the time that the New Kingdom came about, vessels were able

to go almost anywhere.( ” “)

TuthmoseIII grew and his hatred towards Hatshepsut grew along with him as well. As he

got older Hatshepsut’s well being got smaller and smaller as for anyone she was close to. (web

page: hatshepsut.html)

Senmut planned to be burred at Hatshepsut’s temple, but she was going to be buried

somewhere else in her secret tomb. The reason for this was because of her nephew, Tuthmose III

who would stop at nothing to find her tomb and tamper with it or do something bad to it. Senmut

was buried in his own tomb and shortly after his death his sarcophagus was destroyed. His

mummy was never found. Along with Senmut, Hatshepsut’s mummy was no where to be found

and her tomb was destroyed as well. The only thing that has been found of hers was one canopic

jar which contained her liver.(web page:hatshepsut.html, temple.html)

Once Hatshepsut died it is assumed that Tuthmose III had her name removed from things

that she had built, even her temple at Deir-el-Bahri. He also had her name changed to TuthmoseI,

II, or III. He did just the same with Senmut’s name. Know one knows for

shore but Tuthmose III probably had Hatshepsut, Senmut, and their daughter Nofrure.( ” “, ” “)

This is a remarkable history of Hatshepsut. She is so important and I wander why I have

never even heard her name until now. I knew of Cleopatra but not the first female

ruler in all of the world. A great production and more credit should be given to her and her name

should be greatly known among everyone.

Hatshepsut ruled the most powerful, advanced civilization in the world, successfully, for

twenty-one years. There were still people that disliked the fact that their pharaoh was a woman,

and hater her success, but no matter what anyone thinks , her success stands and will continue to

remain forever. Cite Page

1.) Walter A. Fairservis, Jr. “Egypt, Gift of the Nile” card number: 63-16101 year:1963

2.) Web Page http://www.duke.edu/drb2/hatshepsut/HATCART.HTML

3.) Web Page http://www.duke.edu/drb2/HATSHEPSUT.HTML

4.) Web Page http://www.duke.edu/drb2/hatshepsut/TEMPLE.HTML

5.) Encyclopedia Britannica 1990 Card#: 88-83263 book #: 0-85229-511-1

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