The Effectiveness of a Program Evaluation conducted at Lutherwood Residential Treatment Facility

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The Effectiveness of a Program Evaluation conducted at Lutherwood Residential Treatment Facility
Aronta Bridges
Martin University

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Community Psychology Graduate Program At Martin University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master’s of Science Abstract

Staff satisfaction survey’s are designed to evaluate the employee’s satisfaction. This surveys can provide you with valuable insights to strengthen your organization in the areas where employees feel there are opportunities to improve. Benefits include increased employee retention, employee satisfaction and a reduction in turnover.

There are several programs designed to treat child behavioral problems. One local program is Lutheran Child & Family Services also known as Lutherwood. Lutheran Child and Family Services of Indiana/Kentucky (LCFS) is a faith-based service organization dedicated to serving human needs through programs of compassionate care and counsel to enhance the dignity and quality of life. LCFS promotes positive healing relationships, making a commitment to deliver second to none services.

The purpose of this current study is to examine staff satisfaction with services provided by Lutherwood. To provide context for the study, first a discussion of the mental health problems in children will be discussed. Next a discussion of treatment options for children, followed by a discussion of area residential treatment facilities. Finally, there will be a detailed discussion of Lutheran Child and Family Services of Indiana/Kentucky.

Mental Health Problems

The teen years can be tough for both parents and children. Adolescents are under stress to be liked, do well in school, get along with their family and make important life decisions. Most of these pressures are unavoidable and worrying about them is natural. But if a teen is feeling extremely sad, hopeless or worthless, these could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful and can be severe. They can lead to school failure, loss of friends, or family conflict.

Many young people are at risk of mental health problems because of parental psychopathology. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and depression in adult caretakers seem to be particularly debilitating to young people. This can have long-term effects. For example, depressed teenagers growing up with depressed parents, especially depressed mothers, tend to have more frequent and severe depressive episodes as young adults than those with mentally healthy parents (Rohde, Lewinsohn, Klein, & Seeley, 2005).

Lutherwood Treatment Center specializes in adolescents that have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Because of this, these disorders will be discussed in detail.

The terms attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are used in the United States. The official term in the United Kingdom is hyperkinetic disorder. These differences in terminology can sometimes cause confusion. In both instances, these children usually have problems with attention control and being over active (Mental health matters, 2005). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder often exhibits hyperactive an impulsive behavior that may be disruptive. Children with ADHD disorder are restless, fidgety and overactive. They continuously chatter and interrupt people. They are easily distracted and do not finish things. ADHD adolescents also are inattentive and cannot concentrate on tasks, they are impulsive, do things suddenly without thinking first. This type or behavior is common in most children. It becomes a problem when these characteristics are exaggerated, compared to other children of the same age, and when the behavior affects the child’s social and school life. It is not known exactly what causes this disorder but genetic factors seem to play a part. ADHD disorder can run in families, with boys more often than girls (Mental health matters, 2005).

Conduct Disorder is the most serious childhood psychiatric disorder, and it is the hardest disorder to live with as a sibling or parent. This disorder is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in children and adolescents in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated. The child or adolescent usually exhibits these behaviors patterns in a variety of settings at home, at school, and in social situations and they cause significant impairment in his or her social, academic, and family functioning. A child with this disorder often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others. Often initiates physical fights, has or will use a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 99).

Conduct Disorder is more common amongst boys than girls. Approximately 6% – 10% of boys and 2% – 9% of girls have this disorder. According to Scott P. Sells, girls with Conduct Disorder are six times more likely to abuse drugs or alcohol. Eight times more likely to smoke cigarettes daily. Two times more likely to have sexually transmitted diseases. Three times more likely to become pregnant and have twice the number of sexual partners when compared to girls without Conduct Disorders.

Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition defined as recurrent episodes of significant disturbance in mood. These disturbances can occur on a spectrum that ranges from debilitating depression to unbridled mania. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder typically experience fluid states of mania, hypomania or what is referred to as a mixed states in conjunction with depressive episodes (Wikipedia, 2007).

The cause of bipolar is not completely understood, but the disorder runs in families and may also be affected by your living environment or family situation. An imbalance of chemicals in the brain is another possible cause. During the manic episode, persons with this condition may be abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable for a week or more. They may spend a lot of money, get involved in dangerous activities and sleep very little. After a manic episode, they may return to normal, but their mood may swing in the opposite direction to feelings of sadness, depression, and hopelessness. When they are depressed, they may have trouble concentrating, remembering, and making decisions. They may also have changes in their eating and sleeping habits and lose interest in things they once enjoyed. The mood changes of bipolar disorder can be mild or extreme. They may develop gradually over several days or weeks, or come on suddenly within minutes or hours. The manic or depressive episodes many only last a few hours or for several months. “Approximately10%-15% of adolescents with recurrent Major Depressive Episodes will go on to develop Bipolar I Disorder“ (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 385).

The essential feature of Borderline Personality Disorder is a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self image, and affects, and marked impulsivity. Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder make frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. Borderline adolescents can often be bright and intelligent, and appear warm, friendly and competent. They sometimes can maintain this appearance for a number of years until their defense structure crumbles, usually around a stressful situation like the breakup of a romantic relationship or the death of a loved one (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 706).

Borderline is a common disorder with estimates running as high as 10-14% of the general population. The frequency in females is two to three times greater than in males. This may be related to genetic or hormonal influences. An association between this disorder and severe cases of premenstrual tension has been postulated. Females commonly suffer from depression more often than males (Corelli, 2006).

Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a recurrent pattern of negativity, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that persists for at least six months and is characterized by the frequent occurrence of at least four of the following behaviors: losing temper, arguing with adults, actively defying or refusing to comply with the requests or rules of adults, deliberately doing things that will annoy other people (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 100).

Children with this disorder show their negative and defiant behaviors by being persistently stubborn and resisting directions. They may be unwilling to compromise, give in, or negotiate with adults. Patients may deliberately or persistently test limits, ignore orders, argue, and fail to accept blame for misdeeds. Hostility is directed at adults or peers and is shown by verbal aggression or deliberately annoying others (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 100).

Oppositional defiant disorder is more common in boys than girls before puberty; the disorder typically begins by age eight. After puberty the male: female ratio is about 1:1. Although the specific causes of the disorder are unknown, parents who are overly concerned with power and control may cause an eruption to occur. Symptoms often appear at home, but over time may appear in to her settings as well. Usually the disorder occurs gradually over months or years (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 101).

This disorder appears to be more common in families where at least one parent has a history of mood disorder, conduct disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or a substance-related disorder. Additionally, some studies suggest that mothers with a depressive disorder are more likely to have children with oppositional behavior. However, it is unclear to what extent the mother’s depression results from or causes oppositional behavior in children. ODD usually does not occur alone. According to Dr. Anthony Kane, 50-60% of ODD children also have ADD ADHD. 35% of these children develop some form of affective disorder. 20% have some form of mood disorder, such as Bipolar Disorder or anxiety. 15% develop some form or personality disorder (Kane, 2004).

Area Residential Treatment Facilities

There are several area facilities designed to treat adolescents with mental health problems Options Treatment Center is one such facility. OTC is a 80- bed comprehensive residential program designed for the treatment of children and adolescents 8 to 18, with mental retardation developmental disabilities and co-concurring mental illness. This program provides support and treatment in a highly structured 24-hour environment. Each resident is provided an individual treatment plan, based upon assessment of need, which supports the child in reaching their person directed future plans. The therapeutic atmosphere of support, structure, inclusion, therapy, and encouragement based upon each resident’s needs is the fundamental source of treatment.

The child best served in this program is a child who has displayed deficiencies in a adaptive behaviors, such as emotional, sexual, behavioral, or adjustment problems. This is a child who would be at risk of either self harm or harming others if not provided with a 24-hour structured and secure environment. In many instances, the child in this program would have been adjudicated for maladaptive social behaviors if not provided treatment within the program setting. Children who are appropriate for this program often display several inappropriate social skills and are receiving or are in need of psychiatric services as well (Options Treatment Center, 2007).

Another area facility is Muncie Reception & Diagnostic Center. This facility is located in Muncie, Indiana. It provides regimented and structured detention, as well as diagnostic services. The services are available for males and females, regardless of age. The mission of the Muncie facility is to provide services to counties and their children that is of the highest quality of care, supervision, security, diagnostic testing, programming, education and direct services in a detention environment (Muncie Reception & Diagnostic Center, 2006).

Next, there is The Kokomo Academy. This is a residential treatment facility for troubled adolescents between the ages of 11 to 18. It is located in Kokomo Indiana. The Academy accepts youth from each county in Indiana, as well as from surrounding states. The Academy strives to maximize the potential of each youth by providing for their safety, education and emotional well being. Their mission is accomplished when all steps have been taken to ensure a successful and permanent and permanent transition home, and the youth becomes a positive contributing member to his family and community. An integral focus for each youth is behavior modification, which is channeled through a Level Program (Kokomo Academy, 2006).

There is also the Ladoga Academy which is a residential treatment facility for troubled female adolescents between the ages of 10 to 18. It is located in Ladoga, Indiana. The Ladoga Academy accepts youth from each country in Indiana, as well as surrounding states. Services and programs are delivered with the singular goal of providing youth, upon their discharge, with the greatest possible chance of leading a successful life, upon which their contributions to themselves, their families and their communities are both positive and numerous (Ladoga Academy, 2006).

Resource Treatment Center was founded in 1997 to provide quality treatment programs for youth aged 8 – 20 who have experienced a variety of emotional and behavioral challenges. Since joining the child welfare juvenile justice provider community in Indiana, the cornerstone of Resources growth has been a proactive response to community needs as identified by those that are served. Programs at Resource Treatment Center are designed to meet the needs of males and females with special emphasis on maladaptive behaviors, including inappropriate conduct and oppositional defiance, impulsivity, attention deficit, parent/child conflicts, mood disorders, and sexual reactivity (Resource Treatment Center, 2006).

Such programs include, inpatient residential treatment for male and female children with extensive mental health and legal histories who require an intensive therapeutic milieu. Inpatient residential treatment for male and female children early in their involvement with the juvenile justice system, who are in need of a time-limited, structured setting where presenting issues may be addressed so the likelihood of further exposure to the system may be prevented. Lastly Resource offers a program of inpatient residential services for males and females remanded to the Department of Correction who can benefit from case management and therapeutic intervention to address their criminally maladaptive behaviors in lieu of incarceration in a more restrictive correctional facility (Resource Treatment Center, 2006).


Lutheran Child and Family Services of Indiana/Kentucky also known as Lutherwood is another treatment facility that is the focus of this study. The program was started in 1883, by a small group of German Lutherans. Their purpose was to offer care and counsel for children and families. Their mission statement is as follows, “ In response to God’s love and grace in Jesus Christ, Lutheran Child and Family Services of Indiana/Kentucky serves human needs with the church and the community by providing programs of compassionate care and counsel to enhance dignity and quality of life” ( Lutherwood Residential Treatment Center, 2007).

The program is ran by an Executive Director, Michael Johnson. There are approximately 50 youth care specialist staff that are paid employees. To obtain employment at Lutherwood, one must have at least 2 years of relevant experience, Bachelors degree or HSD/GED. They also must be 21 years of age with a valid drivers license. They must be able to pass a physical, a drug screen, and a criminal history check. Potential staff also receive training in a two week orientation, first aid, CPR, and therapeutic crisis intervention physical restraint training.

The specific services provided by Lutherwood are Adoption, Foster Care Services, Therapeutic Foster Care, Counseling, Family Preservation, Mentoring, Independent Living, Sharing Place Ministries, and Residential Treatment Facility. These programs have served thousands of families and is currently serving hundreds of families. The clients range from age six years old to 21 years old.

There are per diems for the residential services, the other services are billed through Medicare/Medicaid. There is no specific deadline for when services are completed. The referrals sources range from private to the board of education.

Lutherwood is a residential treatment center for children who are recovering from the effects of abuse, neglect, and or abandonment. Boys and girls age six thru 21 who are experiencing chronic behavior and or emotional problems and or with a history of hurting themselves or others are eligible for admission to Lutherwood. Most have problems at home or at school and have failed hospitalizations or other less restrictive programs. They are suffering the effects of physical, emotional, and or sexual abuse and may exhibit symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Lutherwood is licensed to care for up to 73 children.

Youth with a minimum IQ of 65 are eligible for placement through referral from juvenile courts, mental health centers, the DAWN Project, or similar social service agencies as well as through private placement by hospitals or individuals. Youth whose IQ are lower than 65 are considered on a individual basis.

A per diem rate for the open or secure units covers the cost of: room & board, weekly allowance, daily sessions with youth counselors, spiritual growth activities (optional), 24 hour supervision, behavior management/therapy, recreational therapy, and aftercare.

Lutherwood clients are able to access Medicare/Medicaid Rehab Option through collaboration with Community Health Network, which also provides psychiatric supervision, staffing, and therapy services. The per diem rate does not include intensive treatment services, psychiatric consultations, case management, and individual, group, or family therapy that is provided in collaboration with Gallahue Mental Health Network of Indianapolis.

Individual treatment plans are created for each resident according to their needs and the specific emotional issues they must address. Reunification with the family and or the community is a goal established for each and every child. Each child’s care team includes a psychiatrist, clinical director, clinical program manager, psychiatric nurse manager, education specialist, and a youth counselor. The facility offers a continuum of residential care settings and levels of treatment to provide greater flexibility in meeting the needs of the children. It also facilitates on campus step down care in an efficient and clinically effective manner. Depending on the severity of the child’s problems, the danger presented to him or the community, and the level of family involvement, the child is assigned to a secure unit, an open unit or the family & community program.

In collaboration with Indianapolis Public Schools, certified special education teachers provide remedial education in several on site classrooms with a full day, complete curriculum for grades K-12. Their goal is to prepare students for public school placement. Up to 20 students from IPS also attend Lutherwood’s therapeutic day school. Children enrolled in this program still live at home, but are at risk of being removed because of behavior problems. Typically, these children have a diagnosis of mental illness. In addition to following a normal IPS curriculum, each child receives one hour of individual therapy and one hour of group therapy each week that is provided by therapists from Gallahue Mental Health Center’s family preservation program. A caseworker is also assigned to each child’s family to help them access community resources (LCFS 2007).

Lutherwood also offers a good benefit package to its employees. During the first year of employment, each full time hourly staff member will accrue personal leave time at the rate of 12 personal leave days per year (accrued at 3.69 hours each pay period). During the second year of employment, personal leave time will accrue at the rate of 15 personal leave days per year (4.61 hours each pay period). During the third and fourth years of employment, personal leave time will accrue at a rate of 18 personal leave days per year (5.53 hours each pay period). During the fifth and subsequent years of employment, personal leave time will accrue at the rate of 20 personal leave days per year (6.15 hours each pay period). Each full time salaried employee, beginning the first year, will accrue personal time at the rate of 22 personal leave days per year (6.77 hours for each pay period). Each part time staff member will accrue personal leave time on a pro rata basis in proportion to the full time accrual listed above. Lutherwood also offers Personal Leave Time, Family and Medical Leave, Short Term Disability Leave, Funeral Leave, Jury Duty Leave, Military Leave, Conventions, Workshops and Conference Leaves, to their employees.

A tuition reimbursement program is available to full tine employees and part time benefits eligible employees who have completed at least six consecutive months of service at Lutherwood and who have received a minimum performance rating of Satisfactory on their last evaluation. The funds are made available on a first come first serve basis. Reimbursement may be made for up to six (6) credit hours per semester. A grade of “C” or better must be earned.

Lutherwood offers a group health insurance program for its eligible employees and pays a portion of the cost of an employee’s coverage under the plan. Emoloyees may also elect to cover their spouses and other eligible dependents under the plan at their own expense.

Lutherwood offers a group dental and a group vision insurance program for its eligible employees and pays a portion of the cost of an employee’s coverage under these plans. You may also elect to cover your spouse and other eligible dependents under these plans at your expense.

Lutherwood provides and pays the cost of one times annual salary for eligible employees. Eligible employees may also increase their coverage to two or three times salary, if approved by the carrier, at an additional cost.

Group Short-term disability income protection is available to eligible staff. Generally, the cost of this coverage is paid by the employee. Staff completing one year of employment may elect one of three levels of Long Term Disability at the next open enrollment. Lutherwood provides and pays for the cost of the initial coverage level.

All employees (whether or not they have completed the trial period) are eligible to receive counseling services at the St. Vincent Stress Center adjacent to the St. Vincent Hospital at 1717 West 86th Street, Suite 130, Indianapolis, Indiana. Supervisors, individual employees, and their immediate family members can schedule up to seven free one hour counseling sessions per treatment episode by phoning the Stress Center at (317) 338-4900 and identifying their association with Lutherwood. Counselors are available to help in coping with such problems as divorce, alcohol, or chemical dependency, legal problems, marital difficulties, illness, sexual problems, family crises, school problems, money management, etc.

Lutherwood also offers a Tax Deferred Annuity, Retirement Plan, Worker’s Compensation Insurance, Unemployment Compensation Insurance, Credit Union, Employee Recognition Program and free Employee Meals (Lutherwood hand book 2006).


A total of fifty employees from Lutherwood Residential Treatment Facility will participate in the study. The participants have various levels of work experience ranging from high school graduates to Master degrees.


Participants will complete a 26-item questionnaire (22- closed ended questions and 4- open ended questions) assessing employee satisfactory and employee’s perception of job performance. The questions have been designed by the investigator to solicit the opinion of the employee on their level of employment satisfaction and what effects it may have on the retention aspects of the facility. There will also be questions related to communication and working relationships. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire is unknown. A copy of the questionnaire is in Appendix A.


The investigator will request employees to participate in the survey and gather appropriate consent forms from the employees being surveyed. The employees will be advised of the process, risks, and benefits of completing the survey. The participants will be advised of their rights if they choose not to participate in the survey, (there will be no further questioning or repercussions.) The consent forms will be distributed, read, and signed before the participants receive the survey. The surveys will be handed to each individual face-to-face and collected back by the investigator. The participants will be given instructions on how to complete the surveys. Participants will be given one week to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire will be completed in the privacy of the participant’s own space. The investigator will obtain completed questionnaires personally in a central location that will provide from anonymous retrieval.

ADHA and Hyperkinetic Disorder. 2005, Retrieved August 19, 2007 from
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Atkinson, D. R., (2004) Counseling American Minorities. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Kane, A. (2004) Helping You Deal With ODD. Retrieved August 20, 2007 from
Kokomo Academy. 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2007 from
Ladogo Academy. 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2007 from
Lutheran Child & Family Services of Indiana/Kentucky, INC.2002. Retrieved June 3,2007 from
Lutherwood Residential Treatment Center For Youth Hand Book
McWhirter, J. J., (2004). At Risk Youth. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Muncie Reception & Diagnostic Center. 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2007 from
Options Treatment Center. 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007 from
Resource Treatment Center. 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2007 from
Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., Klein, D.N., & Seeley, J.R.(2005). Association of parental
depression with psychiatric course from adolescence to young adulthood among formerly
depressed individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 409-420.
Sells, S. P., (2002). Parenting Your Out of Control Teenager. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Takeuchi, D. T., & Cheug, M. (1998). Coercive and voluntary referrals: How ethnic minority adults get into mental health treatment. Ethnicity and Health, 3, 149-158.

Appendix A
Please answer and circle your best response the questions listed below.
Gender: male or female
Position: __________________________________________________
Length of employment: ______________________________________

1. I have readily access to the information I need to perform my job

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
2. I have received adequate training for my job

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
3. I am paid accordingly to my skill level

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
4. I feel secure in my current position

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
5. Changes are communicated effectively by the agency

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
6. There is consistent and fair treatment of employees

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
7. I am provided adequate feedback on my work performance

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
8. I would recommend others to work for this company

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
9. I would leave my current job tomorrow if a better opportunity was available

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
10. I am satisfied with the Executive Director. If you disagree, please explain why

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
11. I am satisfied with my coworkers. If you disagree, please explain why

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
12. I am satisfied with my Shift Supervisor. If you disagree, please explain why

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
13. I am satisfied with the agency. If you disagree, please explain why

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
14. I am satisfied in my current position. If you disagree, please explain why

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
15. Management has created an open and comfortable work environment

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
16. I feel supported by my immediate supervisor

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
17. My Supervisor recognizes my work efforts

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
18. I am involved in the decisions making regarding my job

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree

19. Management recognizes and makes use of my abilities and skills

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree

20. There is opportunity for growth within my agency

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree

21. My agency supports my growth

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree

22. There opportunity to receive professional training outside of Lutherwood?

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree

23. Do you consider this agency to have high turnovers? If so, what would you suggest to reduce the turn-over rate?

24. Identify the two most important things on your job that satisfy you?
25. Identify the two most important things on your job that dissatisfies you?
26. What would you like to see changed her at Lutherwood?

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Theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century BCE, with the Sopocles, the great writer of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, heroes and the ideals of life were depicted and glorified. It was believed that man should live for honor and fame, his action was courageous and glorious and his life would climax in a great and noble death. Originally, the hero's recognition was created by selfish behaviors and little thought of service to others. As the Greeks grew toward city-states and colonization, it became the destiny and ambition of the hero to gain honor by serving his city. The second major characteristic of the early Greek world was the supernatural. The two worlds were not separate, as the gods lived in the same world as the men, and they interfered in the men's lives as they chose to. It was the gods who sent suffering and evil to men. In the plays of Sophocles, the gods brought about the hero's downfall because of a tragic flaw in the character of the hero. In Greek tragedy, suffering brought knowledge of worldly matters and of the individual. Aristotle attempted to explain how an audience could observe tragic events and still have a pleasurable experience. Aristotle, by searching the works of writers of Greek tragedy, Aeschulus, Euripides and Sophocles (whose Oedipus Rex he considered the finest of all Greek tragedies), arrived at his definition of tragedy. This explanation has a profound influence for more than twenty centuries on those writing tragedies, most significantly Shakespeare. Aristotle's analysis of tragedy began with a description of the effect such a work had on the audience as a "catharsis" or purging of the emotions. He decided that catharsis was the purging of two specific emotions, pity and...

Scholarship Essay About Goals

Ever since I was a young kid I have always been interested with aircraft. I was so curious of how airplane's fly. I remember taking my toys apart to see how it works. As a kid I wanted to go to the airport to watch the airplanes land and fly and pondered how this happens. Other kids wanted to go to the amusement places. As I grew older I became more and more interested in aircraft and the technology behind it. I always involved myself with aviation early on. I read books and magazines on aviation, took museum tours, built model airplanes. When I was younger my father would take me to aircraft repair facilities where I would watch in great fascination. In my teens, went up to the military bases and befriended many soldiers involved with aircraft and asked them numerous questions. I got to meet many aeronautics engineers and borrowed their old textbooks and read them till the wee hours of the morning. As technology improved with information superhighway, I logged on the web. Stayed up for hours and hours searching through web pages and web pages of information about aircraft and technology. I started my elementary school in the Philippines, then we moved to U.S. and continued my high school education and graduated. Enrolled at the CCSF to pursue my college education and now I am in the 2nd year in CCSF taking aeronautics. My goal now is to obtain my AS degree from the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) so I can transfer to a University and get a Bachelors degree and to continue for my Masters degree in Aeronautics Engineering. I will strive hard to reach the peak level of my career which is a Professor and hopefully to be an aeronautic professor so...

Circus Circus Enterprises Case Studies

Executive Summary: Circus Circus Enterprises is a leader and will continue to be in the gaming industry. In recent years, they have seen a decline in profit and revenue; management tends to blame the decrease on continuing disruptions from remodeling, expansion, and increased competition. Consequently, Circus has reported decreases in its net income for 1997 and 1998 and management believes this trend will continue as competition heightens. Currently the company is involved in several joint ventures, its brand of casino entertainment has traditionally catered to the low rollers and family vacationers through its theme park. Circus should continue to expand its existing operations into new market segments. This shift will allow them to attract the up scale gambler. Overview Circus Circus Enterprises, Inc founded in 1974 is in the business of entertainment, with its core strength in casino gambling. The company?s asset base, operating cash flow, profit margin, multiple markets and customers, rank it as one of the gaming industry leaders. Partners William G. Bennett an aggressive cost cutter and William N. Pennington purchased Circus Circus in 1974 as a small and unprofitable casino. It went public in 1983, from 1993 to 1997; the average return on capital invested was 16.5%. Circus Circus operates several properties in Las Vegas, Reno, Laughlin, and one in Mississippi, as well as 50% ownership in three other casinos and a theme park. On January 31,1998 Circus reported net income of 89.9 million and revenues of 1.35 billion, this is a down from 100 million on 1.3 billion in 1997. Management sees this decline in revenue due to the rapid and extensive expansion and the increased competition that Circus is facing. Well established in the casino gaming industry the corporation has its focus in the entertainment business and has particularly a popular theme resort concept....

Effect Of Civil War On American Economy

The Economies of the North and South, 1861-1865 In 1861, a great war in American history began. It was a civil war between the north and south that was by no means civil. This war would have great repercussions upon the economy of this country and the states within it. The American Civil War began with secession, creating a divided union of sorts, and sparked an incredibly cataclysmic four years. Although the actual war began with secession, this was not the only driving force. The economy of the Southern states, the Confederacy, greatly if not entirely depended on the institution of slavery. The Confederacy was heavily reliant on agriculture, and they used the profits made from the sale of such raw materials to purchase finished goods to use and enjoy. Their major export was cotton, which thrived on the warm river deltas and could easily be shipped to major ocean ports from towns on the Mississippi and numerous river cities. Slavery was a key part of this, as slaves were the ones who harvested and planted the cotton. Being such an enormous unpaid work force, the profits made were extraordinarily high and the price for the unfinished goods drastically low in comparison; especially since he invention of the cotton gin in 1793 which made the work all that much easier and quicker. In contrast, the economical structure of the Northern states, the Union, was vastly dependent on industry. Slavery did not exist in most of the Union, as there was no demand for it due to the type of industrial development taking place. As the Union had a paid work force, the profits made were lower and the cost of the finished manufactured item higher. In turn, the Union used the profits and purchased raw materials to use. This cycle...

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Trade Embargoes

Although I am a strong critic of the use and effectiveness of economic sanctions, such as trade embargoes, for the sake of this assignment, I will present both their theoretical advantages and their disadvantages based upon my research. Trade embargoes and blockades have traditionally been used to entice nations to alter their behavior or to punish them for certain behavior. The intentions behind these policies are generally noble, at least on the surface. However, these policies can have side effects. For example, FDR's blockade of raw materials against the Japanese in Manchuria in the 1930s arguably led to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which resulted in U.S. involvement in World War II. The decades-long embargo against Cuba not only did not lead to the topple of the communist regime there, but may have strengthened Castro's hold on the island and has created animosity toward the United States in Latin America and much suffering by the people of Cuba. Various studies have concluded that embargoes and other economic sanctions generally have not been effective from a utilitarian or policy perspective, yet these policies continue. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Trade Embargoes Strengths Trade embargoes and other sanctions can give the sender government the appearance of taking strong measures in response to a given situation without resorting to violence. Sanctions can be imposed in conjunction with other measures to achieve conflict prevention and mitigation goals. Sanctions may be ineffective: goals may be too elusive, the means too gentle, or cooperation from other countries insufficient. It is usually difficult to determine whether embargoes were an effective deterrent against future misdeeds: embargoes may contribute to a successful outcome, but can rarely achieve ambitious objectives alone. Some regimes are highly resistant to external pressures to reform. At the same time, trade sanctions may narrow the...