Black Sigatoka

1774 words, 8 pages

Intro Sample...


Introduction:
Bananas are a fruit that are enjoyed by billions of throughout the United States and the world, which then would be no surprise to find out that bananas are the fourth largest fruit crop of the world (1). It also brings in on average 10.5 billion dollars a year (3). A banana tree comes from the genus Musa, and is a member of the monocot order Zingiberales (1). One disease that appears most frequently is the Sigatoka leaf spot disease. It is caused by ascomycetous fungi, called Mycosphaerella musicola (2). Black Sigatoka can also be referred to as black leaf streak. Black Sigatoka could potentially be devastating to the banana species because it could yield losses of 50% or more, cause significant reductions in leaf... View More »

Body Sample...


These sac-like structures, which are referred to as the term asci, have two cell walls (bitunicate) and contain eight sexual spores. These eight sexual spores are the ascospores, and they are lined up two-by-two. The ascospores are colorless and have one septum (5).
Also the pathogen is able to produce asexually. When it produces asexually it is called Pseudocercospora fijiensis. This begins when the conidia are borne on the conidiophore singly and terminally. These spores tend to vary from a pale to a light olive-brown color, and are smooth, long, and with three or more septa (5). When there is high relative humidity around 92%-100%, the conidia begin to germinate and infect the leaf through the stoma, usually on the underside of a leaf. Also, when it is humid hyphae can emerge from the stomata, grow along the leaf surface and penetrate through other stoma, which ultimately increases the size of the lesions. Conidiophores emerge through the stomata, sometimes on erumpent, compact masses of mycelium (stromata). The stromata may also develop on young spermagonia (5).
The common symptoms of black Sigatoka can vary. Usually, the first symptom is the appearance of pale yellow streaks that start on the upper leaf surface. They also could be dark brown streaks on the lower leaf surface, and both symptoms would be about 1-2 mm long which grows to form necrotic lesions with yellow haloes and light grey centers. This pathogen also tends to affect mainly younger leaves (2). Also, tiny, chlorotic spots could appear on the bottom (abaxial) surface of the 3rd or ...

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