They may therefore have to offer a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker. For example, a job promotion will satisfy the esteem needs. Some managers punish workers by removing the lower-level needs, which will cause their need to reverse to the lower needs.
Frederick Herzberg research was influenced by an interview study to select potential candidates. He believes in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argues that there are certain factors that organization can introduce to motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However, there are also factors which will dissatisfy an employee if absent, but these do not motivate employees. (Hygiene factors)
Motivators are related to the job, such as how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Herzberg believes that management can motivate workers by giving them recognition for their achievements and career advancement.
Hygiene factors are external factors like salary and work conditions. Management can punish workers by reducing salary or downgrading the work condition. They can reward workers by providing them as incentives. Herzberg felt that the carrot and stick approach is only effective in the short-run as they are not the motivators.
Douglas McGregors Theory X and Theory Y encompass a negative and positive view in assumption of human behaviours. Theory X manager assumes that an average person is a lazy person, who dislikes work and tends to avoid it. Management needs to promote incentive schemes to motivate him or coerce and threaten with punishment, so that he will put in adequate efforts to achieve organizations objectives.
In contrast, Theory Y manager assumes that an average person was eager to work as it could offer satisfaction. Threat of punishment is not required to motivate a person. Satisfying an average View More »